A Successful Attempt by the State to Shut Down a College
Was Intelligent Design Involved in Closing Columbia Pacific University?
The Case for Disparate Treatment
Columbia Pacific University, more than any other school, pioneered the educational revolution that today goes under the name distance learning that rely heavily on a canned curriculum and adjunct professors. This paper explores the closing of Columbia Pacific University by the State of California. It was determined that all of the reasons given by the court were invalid. Several plausible reasons were proposed, none of which could be proven. It was concluded that the closing of C.P.U. was an arbitrary and capricious political act.
My evaluation of Columbia Pacific University (C.P.U.) documented in this paper is based on my 35 years as a college professor, and the fact that I have a total of eight other degrees (plus two additional graduate degrees—both doctorates—for which I have completed most all of the course work), all from fully accredited State Universities. My other degrees are from Wayne State University, the University of Toledo, Medical University of Ohio, and Bowling Green State University. I have also completed post bachelors course work at the University of Wisconsin, Miami University in Ohio, and the University of California, Berkeley.
I originally pursued a degree from C.P.U. because where I now reside is a considerable distance away (generally a 2.5 hour round trip) from the closest graduate schools (the University of Toledo, Medical University of Ohio, and Bowling Green State University). Consequently, in the late 1980s I inquired about a suitable non-residential college where I could complete my graduate work in the science area (I already earned a number of graduate credits, all of which Columbia accepted).
To make an informed decision on graduate school, I consulted the most authoritative alternative education reference in print, Bear’s Guide, which Wilson Library Bulletin says is “the authoritative guide in the field.” The 2003 Tenspeed catalog says about Bears Guide “after 25 years this classic bestseller is still the resource for anyone looking to earn a degree in a nontraditional way.” This guide highly recommended C.P.U. with the following words:
Columbia Pacific is the largest university in the United States and one of the largest in the world offering non-resident Bachelor’s, Master’s and Doctorates. Despite the size, students report an extremely high level of personal attention from the faculty and staff. The faculty numbers more than 400, nearly all with traditional Doctorates. Two former presidents of major accredited universities serve as two of the deans of Columbia Pacific, and their president, Richard Crews, is a prominent psychiatrist with his medical degree from Harvard…. Degrees are offered in dozens of subject areas, including business, administration and management, engineering, psychology, education, holistic health, health sciences administration, architecture, and nutrition. Special programs are created for students wishing to work in specialized areas… The University has two campuses: a million-dollar university-owned urban campus in downtown San Rafael (just north of San Francisco) and a 13-acre North Campus in northern Marin County, with library, student housing and other facilities. There is an office in England, where a special program in travel and tourism is offered jointly with British Air, and where former Prime Minister Harold Wilson is one of many prominent people serving as honorary fellows of the university (Bear, 1985, p. 96).
Bear concluded his detailed review of C.P.U. with the following recommendation:
No other non-resident doctorate-granting institution has a staff with the credentials, reputation, and experience of Columbia Pacific. Many major universities, including Harvard, Yale and Princeton have expressed a willingness to accept C.P.U. degrees. Hundreds of C.P.U. alumni have written me (more than from any other school) to praise the very personal approach, the valuable learning experience, and the usefulness of their degrees (1985, p. 96).
Bear also rates schools from 1-5 (5 being fully regionally accredited), C.P.U. was rated a 4, meaning it was given the authority by “the superintendent of public instruction of the State of California” to award the degrees they offered. In other words, it was fully accredited by the State of California. Among other things, Full Institutional Approval pursuant to California Education Code Section 94310(b) means: “The course for which the degree is granted achieves its professed or claimed academic objective for higher education, with verifiable evidence of academic achievement comparable to that required of graduates of other recognized schools accredited by an appropriate accrediting commission recognized by the United States Department of Education or the Committee of Bar Examiners for the State of California.” The key word in the clause is ‘comparable’ which is synonymous with the adjectives ‘similar,’ ‘matching,’ and ‘equivalent.’ Almost 50 accrediting bodies exist, and for this reason, one must specify which accrediting body is of concern. The United States Department of Education recognized C.P.U. as a fully accredited institution, as evidenced by its inclusion in the Higher Education Directory, published by Higher Education Publications, Washington, DC, 1984. C.P.U. was also listed in Petterson’s American Education, Vol 82.
The 1981 edition of Bear’s Guide says the founders and staff of C.P.U. “have, by a wide margin, the most impressive credentials of the people associated with any such school” (1980, p. 49). The school was founded in 1978 by three senior academics, two of which were former presidents of regionally accredited American universities (see www.altepualumni.org). C.P.U. was the first California approved institution to gain full Institutional Approval in 1986. It now has over 7,500 alumni in 60 countries. When operating, it was the largest distance learning institution in America. Bear adds that no other alternative non-residential Doctorate-granting institution has officers who approach the reputation, prestige, and experience of those of C.P.U. I have had more positive, enthusiastic feedback from students and alumni of C.P.U. than from any other school, accredited or not. These people praise the very personal approach, the valuable learning experience, the comparatively low cost, and the value of the degree to them. C.P.U. operates from a large leased building just north of San Francisco and from a 13-acre residential retreat center (with library, student housing, etc.) in Northern Marin County. There is also a residential psychology program in Santa Cruz, and offices in England.
C.P.U. was rated by the California State Department of Education as “consistent in quality” with regionally accredited institutions. All new schools are unaccredited, and when C.P.U. was operating, it could not become regionally accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) because WASC at that time did not accredit any nonresidential “distance learning” (now called on-line educational programs) institutions. Of course, this has now changed, in part due to the pioneering work of C.P.U.. In 1995, C.P.U. had begun to develop the residence requirement to earn full regional accreditation, and was then preparing to apply for regional accreditation. The Times Educational Supplement of August 5th, 1983 noted that C.P.U. had a selective admission policy. I checked the standard references on degree mills and could not find one that listed C.P.U. For example Ezell and Bear (2005) in their extensive study of degree mills, never mentioned C.P.U. in their authoritative study of the problem. Ezell was employed by the FBI for 35 years and headed the agencies diploma-mill task force and documented hundreds of cases.
I also consulted with several C.P.U. graduates, and discovered a large number of very successful alumni. One is John Gray, Ph.D., the award-winning best-selling author of the Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus series, which has sold 40 million copies, that critics once claimed was very controversial but has now moved more into the mainstream. I also encountered numerous C.P.U. graduates who have done well in academia, such as Frank G. Shellock, Ph.D., FACC, FACSM, assistant professor of radiology at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine and a research scientist at the world-renowned Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. I reviewed the publication record of Dr. Shellock, who has his Ph.D. from C.P.U., and from a single search located the following peer reviewed scholarly publications:
______, D.J. Schaefer, and C.J. Gordon. 1986. “Effect of a 1.5 T Static Magnetic Field on Body Temperature of Man.” Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 3(4):644-647.
______. 1986. “Monitoring during MRI. An Evaluation of the Effect of High-Field MRI on Various Patient Monitors.” Medical Electronics, 17(4):93-97.
______, D.J. Schaefer, W. Grundfest, and J.V. Crues. 1986. “Thermal Effects of High-Field (1.5 Tesla) Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Spine. Clinical Experience Above a Specific Absorption Rate of 0.4 W/kg.” Acta Radiologica Supplementum, 369:514-516.
______, C.J. Gordon and D.J. Schaefer. 1986. “Thermoregulatory Responses to Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Head at 1.5 Tesla: Lack of Evidence for Direct Effects on the Hypothalamus.” Acta Radiological. Supplement, 369:512-513.
______. 1987. “Biological Effects of MRI.” Diagnostic Imaging, 9:96-101.
______. 1988. “Corneal Temperature Changes Induced by High-Field-Strength MR Imaging With a Head Coil.” Radiology, 167(2):809-811.
______ and John V. Cures. 1988. “High-Field Strength MR Imaging and Metallic Biomedical Implants: An Ex Vivo Evaluation of Deflection Forces.” American Journal of Roentgenology. Vol. 151.
______. 1988. “MR Imaging of Metallic Implants and Materials: A Compilation of the Literature.” American Journal of Roentgenology, 151:811-814.
______, J.H. Mink, J.M. Fox. 1988. “Patellofemoral Joint: Kinematic MR Imaging to Assess Tracking Abnormalities.” Radiology, 168(2):551-553.
______. and John V. Crues. 1988b. “Temperature Changes Caused by Clinical MR Imaging of the Brain With a Head Coil.” American Journal of Neuroradiology, 9:287-291.
______, D.J. Schaefer, and J.V. Crues. 1989. “Alterations in Body and Skin Temperatures caused by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Is the Recommended Exposure for Radio frequency Radiation too Conservative?” The British Journal of Radiology, 62(742):904-909.
______. 1989. “Biological Effects and Safety Aspects of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.” Magnetic Resonance Quarterly, 5(4):243-261.
______, D.J. Schaefer and John V. Crues. 1989. “Exposure to a 1.5 Tesla Static Magnetic Field Does Not Alter Body and Skin Temperatures in Man.” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 11:30.
______, et al. 1989. “Kinematic Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Evaluation of Patellar Tracking.” Physician and Sports Medicine, 17:99.
______ and B.D. Pressman. 1989. “MR Imaging of the Temporomandibular Joint: Improvements in the Imaging Protocol.” American Journal of Neuroradiology, 10:598.
______ and H. Bierman. 1989. “The Safety of MRI.” The Journal of the American Medical Association, 261(23):3412.
______, A.L. Deutsch, and J.H. Mink. 1990. “Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Injuries to Bone and Articular Cartilage. Emphasis on Radiographically Occult Abnormalities.” Orthopaedic Review, 19(1):66-75.
______, T. Fukunaga, J.H. Mink, and V.R. Edgerton. 1991. “Exertion Muscle Injury: Evaluation of Concentric Versus Eccentric Actions with Serial MR Imaging.” Radiology, 179(3):659-664.
______ and J.L. Fleckenstein, J.L. 1991. “Exertional Muscle Injuries: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation.” Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 3(4):50-70.
______, J.H. Mink, A. Deutsch, and B.D. Pressman. 1991. “Kinematic Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Joints: Techniques and Clinical Applications.” Magnetic Resonance Quarterly, 7(2):104-135.
______. 1991. “Patellofemoral Joint Abnormalities in Athletes: Evaluation by Kinematic Magnetic Resonance Imaging.” Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 3(4):71-95.
______ and E. Kanal. 1991. “Policies, Guidelines, and Recommendations for MR Imaging Safety and Patient Management. SMRI Safety Committee.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 1(1):97-101.
______ K. McCully, W.J. Bank, and J.D. Posner. 1992. “The Use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to Evaluate Muscle Injury.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24(5):537-542.
______, D. Stoller, and J.V. Crues. 1996. “MRI of the Shoulder: A Rational Approach to the Reporting of Findings.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 6(1):268-270.
______, D. L. Rubin, D.L.; K.L. Falk, M.J. Sperling, M. Ross, et al. 1997. “A Multicenter Clinical Trial of Gadolite Oral Suspension as a Contrast Agent for MRI.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 7(5):865-872.
______ and R. C. Hartwell. 1997. “MRI of Cervical Fixation Devices: Sensation of Heating Caused by Vibration of Metallic Components.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 7(4):771-772.
______, W. Feske, C. Frey, and Michael R. Terk. 1997. “Peroneal Tendons: Use of Kinematic MR Imaging of the Ankle to Determine Subluxation.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 7(2):451-454.
______, L. P. Bendel, and M. Steckel. 1997. “The Effect of Mechanical Deformation on Magnetic Properties and MRI Artifacts of Type 304 and Type 316L Stainless Steel.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 7(6):1170-1173.
______ and V.J. Shellock. 1998. “Cardiovascular Catheters and Accessories: Ex vivo Testing of Ferromagnetism, Heating, and Artifacts Associated with MRI.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 8(6):1338-1342.
______. 1998. “Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Knee and Patellofemoral Joint.” Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, 14(6):658-661.
______ and E. Kanal. 1998. “MRI Interaction with Tattoo Pigments.” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 101(4):1150-1151.
______, Christopher M. Powers, and M. Pfaff. 1998. “Quantification of Patellar Tracking Using Kinematic MRI.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 8(3):724-732.
______, K.R. Stone, and J.V. Crues. 1999. “Development and Clinical Application of Kinematic MRI of the Patellofemoral Joint Using an Extremity MR System.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(6):788-791.
______, Christopher M. Powers, T.V. Beering, D.E. Garrido, R.M. Goldbach, and T. Molnar. 1999. “Effect of Bracing on Patellar Kinematics in Patients with Patellofemoral Joint Pain.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(12):1714-1720.
______, and J.M. Horrigan, J.H. Mink, and A.L. Deutsch. 1999. “Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Muscle Usage Associated with Three Exercises for Rotator Cuff Rehabilitation.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(10):1361-1366.
______ and A. Kangarlu. 2000. “Aneurysm Clips: Evaluation of Magnetic Field Interactions with an 8.0 T MR System.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 12(1):107-111.
______. 2000. “Effect of a Patella-Stabilizing Brace on Lateral Subluxation of the Patella: Assessment of Using Kinematic MRI.” The American Journal of Knee Surgery, 13(3):137-142.
______ and J.L. Fleckenstein. 2000. “Muscle Physiology and Pathophysiology: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation.” Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, 4(4):459-479.
______ and A.M. Sawyer-Glover. 2000. “Pre-MRI Procedure Screening: Recommendations and Safety Considerations for Biomedical Implants and Devices.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 12(1):92-106.
______, M.B. Edward, and K.M. Taylor. 2000. “Prosthetic Heart Valves: Evaluation of Magnetic Field Interactions, Heating, and Artifacts at 1.5 T.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 12(2):363-369.
______, J.M. Bert, H.M. Fritts, C.R. Gundry, R. Easton, and J.V. Crues 34d. 2001. “Evaluation of the Rotator Cuff and Glenoid Labrum using a 0.2-Tesla Extremity Magnetic Resonance (MR) System: MR Results Compared to Surgical Findings.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 14(6):763-770.
______. 2001. “Metallic Neurosurgical Implants: Evaluation of Magnetic Field Interactions, Heating, and Artifacts at 1.5-Tesla.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 14(3):295-299.
______. 2001. “Metallic Surgical Instruments for Interventional MRI Procedures: Evaluation of MR Safety.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 13(1):152-157.
______, K. Kulig, Christopher M. Powers, and Michael R. Terk. 2001. “The Effects of Eccentric Velocity on Activation of Elbow Flexors: Evaluation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(2):196-200.
______, Samuel R. Ward, Michael R. Terk, Gretchen B. Salsich, and Christopher M. Powers. 2002. “Assessment of Patellofemoral Relationships using Kinematic MRI: Comparison between Qualitative and Quantitative Methods.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 16(1):69-74.
______, Ali R. Rezai, Daniel Finelli, John A. Nyenhuis, Greg Hrdlicka, et al. 2002. “Neurostimulation Systems for Deep Brain Stimulation: In Vitro Evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Related Heating at 1.5 Tesla.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 15(3):241-250.
The school utilized faculty from other colleges and universities to supervise students’ graduate work. My faculty advisor was John A. Short, Ph.D., department of anatomy and histology at the University of Pittsburgh. Some of his many scholarly publications include:
Lieberman and J. Short. Hepatic blood supply and the control of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in liver, American Journal Physiology. 208, 896 (1965).
- Lieberman, J. Gingold, P .Kane and J. Short., Inorganic phosphate and Na+ increases in liver after partial hepatectomy. American Journal Physiology. 208, 903 (1965).
- Lieberman, P. Kane and J. Short. The portal vein and control of liver ribonucleic acid metabolism. Journal Biology Chemistry. 240, 3140 (1965).
- Short, R. Zemel, J. Kanta and I. Lieberman. Stimulation of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in the liver parenchymal cells of the intact rat. Nature. 223, 956 (1969).
- Short, R. F. Brown, A. Husakova, J. R. Gilbertson, R. Zemel and I. Lieberman. Induction of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in the liver of the intact rat. Journal Biology Chemistry. 247, 1757 (1972).
- A. Pekarthy, J. Short, A. I. Lansing and I. Lieberman. Function and control of liver alkaline phosphatase, Journal Biology Chemistry. 247, 1767 (1972).
- Lieberman, and J. Short, Control of Liver DNA Synthesis. Dermatology. 59, 17 (1972).
- J. Gaza, J. Short, and I. Lieberman., On the possibility that the prereplicative increases in ornithine decarboxylase activity are related to DNA synthesis in the liver. FEBS Letters. 32, 251 (1973).
- Short, N. B. Armstrong, R. Zemel and I. Lieberman. A role for amino acids in the induction of DNA synthesis in the liver, B. B. R. C. 50, 430 (1973).
- J. Gaza, J. Short and I. Lieberman. Transcriptional and translational control of the biphasic increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity in liver, B. B. R. C. 54, 1483 (1973).
- Ove, M. L. Coetzee, M. Obenrader and J. Short. Loss of a serum protein from hepatoma bearing animals. Oncology. 29, 13 (1974).
- Short, N. B. Armstrong, M. A. Kolitsky, R. A. Mitchell, R. Zemel and I. Lieberman. Amino acids and the control of nuclear DNA replication in liver. In: B. Clarkson and R. Baserga (eds.) Control of Proliferation in Animal Cells, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, N.Y., p. 37-48 (1974).
- Short, K. Tsukada, W. Rudert and I. Lieberman. Cyclic adenosine 3′: 5′ – monophosphate and the induction of DNA synthesis in liver, Journal Biology Chemistry. 250, 3602-3605 (1975).
- P. Bailey, W. A. Rudert, J. A. Short and I. Lieberman. Nucleolar changes in liver before the onset of DNA replication, Journal Biology Chemistry. 250, 4305-4309 (1975).
- A. Short, N. B. Armstrong, D. J. Gaza and I. Lieberman. Hormones and amino acids and control of nuclear DNA replication in liver. In: R. Lesch and W. Reutter (eds. ) Liver Regeneration After Experimental Injury. Stratton Intercontinental Medical Book Corp. , N. Y. p. 296-308. (1975).
- Lynch, J. Short and I. Lieberman. The 7S nuclear DNA polymerase and DNA replication in intact liver, Cancer research. 36, 901-904 (1976).
- P. Bailey, M. J. Vrooman, Y. Sawai, K. Tsukada, J. A. Short and I. Lieberman. Amino acids and the control of nucleolar size, the activity of RNA polymerase I, and DNA synthesis in liver, Proceedings of the National Academy Science U. S. A. 73, 3201-3205 (1976).
- E. Chadwick, J. A. Solan, J. A. Short, K. Morimoto and I. Lieberman. Nuclear DNA synthesis and levels of ornithine decarboxylase, putrescine, and polyamines in the liver of the intact rat. In: A. Campbell (ed.) Advances in Polyamine Research, Vol. II, Raven Press, N.Y. p. 111-121 (1977).
- Short, L. Kibert, R. Wedmore, P. Ove and R. Zemel. Chromatin protein methylation in proliferating liver and hepatoma cells, Cytobios. 25, 115-128 (1979).
- Short. Persistence of an increment of additive liver growth induced by triiodothyronines, Hormone and Metabolic Research. 12, 43, 1 (1980).
- Short, R. Zemel, R. Wedmore, and L. Kibert. A reliable cross-circulation model: Its use in monitoring humoral agents, Cytibios. 28, 7-16 (1980).
- Short, K. Klein, L. Kibert and P. Ove. Involvement of the iodothyronines in liver and hepatoma cell proliferation in the rat. Cancer Research. 40, 2417-2422 (1980).
- Short and L. Kibert. Enhanced hepatic chromatin protein methylation induced by triiodothyronine treatment of the rat, Endocrine Research Community. 7, 113-119 (1980).
- Short and L. Kibert. Semiquantitative determination of chromosomal protein methylation in vivo: calculation of a methylation index, Journal Applied Biochemical. 2, 40-44 (1980).
- Short, R. Wedmore, L. Kibert and R. Zemel. Triiodothyronine: On its role as a specific hepatomitogen, Cytobios. 28, 165-177 (1980).
- Klein, R. Chou, J. Short, and P. Ove. Amounts of triiodothyronine and a serum protein related to hepatic DNA synthesis in the rat, Hormone and Metabolic Research. 13, 165-170 (1981).
- Ohi and J. Short. A general procedure for preparing messenger RNA from eukaryotic cells without using phenol, Journal Applied Biochemical. 2 393-413 (1981).
- Short, D. Truitte and M. Ontell. Lack of a “pleiotropic response” in hepatocyte proliferation induced in the rat be 3, 5, 3′ – triiodothyronine, Cytobios. 31, 191-209 (1981).
- Short, P. McDermott and D. Truitte. Humoral modulation of hepatic nuclear triiodothyronine receptors in the cross-circulated rat, Hormone and Metabolic Research. 14, 224 (1982).
- L. Cotezee, J. Short, K. Klein, and P. Ove. Correlation of the circulating levels of a serum protein with triiodothyronine levels and hepatoma growth, Cancer Research. 42, 155-160 (1982).
- L. Coetzee, J. Short and P. Ove. The influence of a humoral factor on hepatoma growth, Process Biochemical. 17, 12 (1982).
- Truitte, P. McDermott, J. Short and L. Desser-Wiest. Reciprocal correlation between the levels of hepatic nuclear binding sites for T3 and enhanced DNA replication in the liver of the rat: a possible unifying concept, Cytobios. 38, 7-19 (1983).
- Short and P. Ove. Recent hypothesis advocating a prominent role for the thyroid hormones in mammalian liver cell proliferation in vivo, Cytobios. 38, 39-49 (1983).
- Truitte, P. Ove and J. Short. Partial characterization of specific nuclear triiodothyronine binding sites in two transplantable murine hepatomas, Anticancer Research. 3, 417-420 (1983).
- A. Short, L. Kibert and R. Wedmore. The role of 3,3′, 5-triiodothyronine as a specific hepatomitogen, Journal Cell Biology. 83, 231a (Abs.) (1979).
- Truitte, J. A. Short and M. Ontell. Paucity of prereplicative alterations in hepatocyte proliferation induced by triiodothyronine. Journal Cell Biology. 87, 158a (Abs.) (1980).
- Klein, J. Short and P. Ove. Levels of a specific serum protein correlated with hepatic DNA synthesis in the rat. Journal Cell Biology. 87, 154a (Abs.) (1980).
When I completed my degree in February of 1992, C.P.U. was fully licensed and authorized by the State of California to award degrees. Their degrees were accepted not only by industry, but also by education, government, and other areas. My Ph.D. dissertation was published by University Microfilms International in Ann Arbor (Bergman, 1992).
C.P.U. Graduates Employed in Academia
Columbia Pacific graduates are teaching, or on the staff of, the following traditional colleges and universities:
Antioch University, Athabasca University (Canada), Bedford College of Higher Education (England), Boston State College, Brigham Young University, Bryant College (Rhode Island), California State University, Hayward, California State University, Los Angeles, Central University of Venezuela, Cogswell College (California), College of Female Education (Saudi Arabia), Cuyahoga Community College (Ohio), Edward Williams College (New Jersey), Exeter University (England), Futtsing Kang College (Taiwan), Georgia Tech, George Watson’s College (Scotland), Golden State University (California), Grand Rapids Baptist College and Seminary (Michigan), Hargrave Military Academy (Virginia), Michigan State University, Moorpark College (California), Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois), Mt. Sinai Medical Center (New York), Nassau Community College (New York), Nebraska Wesleyan University, New York University, North Texas State University, Norwalk Community College (Connecticut), Nova University (Florida), Odessa College (Texas), Oregon Institute of Technology, Pecos Valley Christian College (New Mexico), Pierce College (California), Purdue University (Indiana), San Francisco State University, Schreiner College (Texas), South Florida Community College, Swinburne Institute of technology, (Australia), Tampa College (Florida), Temple University, Umm Al Qura University (Saudi Arabia), Universidad de Costa Rica, University of Bridgeport (Connecticut), University of British Columbia, University of Hawaii, University of Manchester (England), University of Massachusetts, University of Oregon, University of Salonika (Greece), University of Texas, El Paso, University of Vermont, University of Wales, University of Waterloo (Canada), University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, U.S. Army Reserve School (Illinois), Wake Forest University (North Carolina), Wallace State Community College (Alabama), West Coast University (California), West Virginia Northern Community College, Yeungnam University Medical School (Korea).
I was easily able to locate scores of faculty members from many other colleges and universities who were C.P.U. graduates. An example is Dr. James Yarmus (his Ph.D. is from C.P.U.), who teaches at Howe School of Technology, a division of Stevens Institute of Technology. His fellow faculty earned degrees from Harvard, Vanderbilt, MIT, Stanford, Columbia, and Cornell. Another example is Macomb Country Community College (MCCC) President Al Lorenzo has his Ph.D. from C.P.U. MCCC is one of the nation’s largest and most innovative community colleges. He established the four-year university center that allows students to earn over 40 bachelors degrees from 10 different colleges. When Lorenzo wanted to complete his Ph.D. in the early 1990s he “called the Michigan Department of Education for a recommendation, and Columbia Pacific University was suggested” (editorial in The Macomb Daily dated August 30, 2004). A few more examples follow:
Charles Adamson Ph.D. professor at Shizouka Rikoka University. He received a B.A. from Goddard College with a major in electrical engineering and computer applications and a Ph.D. in Education from C.P.U. He also has eight years of studying information technology with the U.S. Army.
Dolores Marsh Alford, Ph.D., RN, FAAN is an independent gerontology nurse. She has a Ph.D. from C.P.U.
Peter Alsop Ph.D. author, educator, educator, songwriter and humorist, has a BS from Trinity College in Connecticut and did his Ph.D. at Columbia University’s Teachers’ College and C.P.U. He is director of The Harbor Schools Residential Treatment Center in the South Bronx. He music is used by thousands to help families to discuss sensitive issues and his Wake-up video with John Ritter has proved to be a valuable resource to help families prevent child abuse and abduction.
Marlene Anderson, Ph.D. has more than 25 years of teaching and education administration experience at the secondary and post-secondary levels. A published author, Dr. Anderson has received several awards for her educational leadership accomplishments.
Judith Anodea Ph.D. is best known as the author of Wheels of Life: a User’s Guide to the Chakra System. (1987) and The Sevenfold Journey: Reclaiming Mind, Body & Spirit Through the Chakras (with Selene Vega), Eastern Body, Western Mind: Psychology and the Chakra System as a Path to the Self (1996), and Contact: The Yoga of Relationship (with Tara Lynda Guber) Insight Editions, 2006. Anodea’s academic background includes a MS from Rosebridge School of Integrative Therapy, a Ph.D. in Health and Human Services from C.P.U., and additional doctoral work in Systems Theory. She wrote that Columbia Pacific was a distance learning program like many others that exist today. Though I received my Ph.D. in 1999, I was aware of what was happening when they got shut down shortly afterward. The CDCA made their judgment without ever setting foot on campus, without interviewing any of the students or teachers, and without just information or representation. It was clearly a political move, and an unfortunate one.
Robert Armstrong, Ph.D. the Director of the Fine and Performing Arts Division of Treasure Valley Community College, was named Educator of the Year by the Ontario Chamber of Commerce in 1994. In 1986 he was inducted into the Alaska Music Educator’s Hall of Fame.
Wolfgang Babel Ph.D. is vice president of operations and president of Beldon Europe, Middle East and Africa data networking specializing in electronics markets. He has a Doctorate of engineering from Friedrich-Alexander University in Nuremberg and a Ph.D. in system theory mathematics from C.P.U.
Craig Bangston, Ph.D. was a superintendent for most of his career. His last position was at Bartow County (Ga.), school system (15,000 students). He retired at the end of the last school year and became a financial consultant for a group of doctors. Bangston received his BS and MS from Bemidji State University and a Ph.D. from C.P.U. He also has done post-doctorate studies in education administration at Harvard and Vanderbilt universities.
Donald Bartlette Ph.D., formally a social worker, is now a full time lecturer on the subject of support for the handicapped, received his Ph.D. in education from C.P.U. He lectures widely in the United States.
Thomas F. Barraga, Ph.D graduated from St. John’s University with a BA in marketing, from Long Island University with a MBA, and a Ph.D. in Business and Public Administration from C.P.U. Currently a Major General in the New York Guard, Barraga was awarded the New York State Defense of Liberty Medal for his distinguished service. Barraga also spent 13 years in the private sector, holding various administrative positions with Dun and Bradstreet and Pfizer. He was elected to the New York State Assembly in 1982 and on November 8, 2005 was elected to the Suffolk County Legislature. Dr. Barraga is a former Vice-Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Suffolk Community College and has been honored with awards and citations from many organizations. He was also a Commissioner on the N.Y. State. Temporary State Commission, and on the Distribution of State Aid to Local School Districts, and was honored by Gov. Mario M. Cuomo in recognition of his distinguished service.
- V. Bender Ph.D. is the founder and director of the highly successful Precision Teaching System, an area he did his Ph.D. in at C.P.U. and has published several articles in peer reviewed journals. About 100 articles and several other Ph.D. theses have been completed on his system, including one at the University of Kansas by P. Albrecht. The movement also has its own professional journal titled Journal of Precision Teaching.
- Bentley professor of electronics at Mesa Community College. H ehas a AAS from Mesa Community College and a BS and MA from C.P.U.
- George Bernato, Ph.D. is a Jungian oriented psychotherapist currently active in community endeavors and as a public lecturer and author of published books and essays on topics related to Jungian analytic psychology.
- Lothar vonBlenk-Schmidt, Ph.D. was invited on March 4, 1982 to serve as an advisor on the United States Congressional Advisory Board for National Security.
- Claudia Black Ph.D., Clinical Consultant of Addictive Disorders for the Meadows Treatment Center and a senior fellow for the Meadows Institute in Arizona, is a author featured in numerous publications including Newsweek, USA Today, The New York Times, Los Angeles Times and has appeared on television shows including The Phil Donahue Show, The Oprah Winfrey Show, and The Today Show. A prolific writer, Black is the author of It Will Never Happen to Me: Growing Up with Addiction as Youngsters, Adolescents, Adults (1982) (which sold over two million copies and is currently in its second edition), Changing Course: Healing from Loss, Abandonment, and Fear (1993), My Dad Loves Me, My Dad Has a Disease (1982), Repeat After Me II (1985), It’s Never too Late to Have a Happy Childhood: Inspirations for Adult Children (1989), Anger Guide (1996), Relapse Toolkit (2000), and A Hole in the Sidewalk (2000). She has also produced eighteen videos, including The History of Addiction (1999) and The Legacy of Addiction (1999), and two CDs, A Time for Healing from Abandonment and Shame (2001) and Putting the Past Behind (2001). Her BS is from the University of Washington and her Ph.D. is from C.P.U.
- Linda Bolding, Ph.D. has a BS in music education from Eastern New Mexico University, a MA in Music education from the University of Texas, and a doctorate in Choral Conducting from C.P.U.
- Vance Bonner PhD is a body alignment instructor and author of The Vance Stance, a therapeutic set of exercises designed to improve health and fitness. Her book, The Vance Stance, was a Literary Guild and Health Book Club selection. Her PhD is from C.P.U. in health science.
- Chief Douglas Bracy is a highly respected law enforcement leader and instructor at the Maine Criminal Justice Academy. He has been a member of the York Police Department for 30 years and has headed the Department for a decade. He is also currently President of the Maine chief of police organization. He has his BA in administration from C.P.U.
- Thomas M. Brinker Jr, JD, LL M is professor of Accounting and Coordinator of the Accounting Program at Arcadia University’s MBA Program in Philadelphia. He is also affiliated with the American College, with William Howard Taft University and is an advisory faculty member of the Washington School of Law. He earned his J.D. at C.P.U. and a LL.M degree from Regent University School of Law. He also holds academic degrees from Widener University and from St. Joseph’s University.
- Steven Brody M.D. is currently assistant professor of Clinical Medicine at the University of California Medical School in San Diego. He has a BA and MMSC from Brown University a MD from Washington University Medical School and a Ph.D. from C.P.U. He has taught at Stanford University Medical School and was a resident at both Yale and Stanford. He is board certified in reproductive endocrinology, obstetrics & gynecology, endocrinology & metabolism, and medicine. Dr. Brody’s book, Endocrine Disorders in Pregnancy, was written during his obstetrics and gynecology residency at Stanford University Medical Center. He co-authored a comprehensive textbook, Principles and Practice of Assisted Human Reproduction, with the originator of in vitro fertilization, Robert G. Edwards, Ph.D. Dr. Brody has published numerous papers and abstracts in scientific journals, lectures extensively, and has conducted surgical preceptorships both here and abroad. Dr. Brody is licensed to practice medicine in five states. He has lectured widely and has received 16 major awards including the William Osler Medal.
- Jane Brown, Ph.D. assistant professor, School of Nursing, Washburn University. Professor Brown earned an undergraduate nursing degree from the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha; a master of nursing degree from Montana State University, Bozeman; and a Ph.D. in health sciences at C.P.U., San Rafael, Calif. She has held positions with the Department of Veterans Affairs in Nebraska and Texas nursing positions while serving in the U.S. Army.
- Jeffery Bruns, Ph.D. University Lecturer at Chapman University, Orange, California teaching graduate courses to students enrolled in School Psychology Certification. He has a B.A. from the University of California Santa Barbara, BS from Toyota University, M.A., Chapman University in Psychology and a Ph.D. from C.P.U. His main area is management motivation programming based on neuro linguistic language processing. A Licensed Educational Psychologist (LEP 2662), he specializes in remedial Services: Learning Disabled, Autism, Aspergers, and behavior modification.
- Dari Caldwell MA formerly vice president of clinical services for the Cabarrus Family Medical Clinic, now senior director of development for Presbyterian Medical Group, Charlotte NC. She has a BA from University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and a MA from C.P.U.
- Harald Cebrun, Ph.D. is superintendent of Rialto schools in Texas. He has a BS from California State, Los Angeles, a MA from Azusa Pacific University, and a Ph.D. from C.P.U. in counseling psychology.
- Shayne Del Cohen, Ph.D. is a management, public relations and development consultant with 40 years experience and is on the boards of several organizations including State Historic Records Advisory Board. Her Ph.D. is from C.P.U. in international law.
- Alfred Chen Ph.D. Professor and former Dean of the College of Design of Kun Shan University in Taiwan and the Department of Industrial Design at National Cheng Kung University. He has a MFA from California Institute of the Arts and a Ph.D. from C.P.U.
- Stephen A. Cherniske MS, a health educator, has a bachelor’s degree from the State University of New York at Albany and a MS in nutrition from C.P.U. Mr. Cherniske has over 30 years of clinical, research, and teaching experience. In the 1970s he worked as a nutritional consultant at three medical clinics. He then began teaching clinical nutrition for the UCLA nursing program, and took a position as Vice President and Technical Director for a federally licensed clinical laboratory specializing in nutrition and immunology. In 1983 he started teaching at Chapman University, and created the Anatomy Academy Learning System™, a multi-media course in anatomy & physiology. Cherniske is a frequent presenter at national and international sports medicine conferences. He served on the faculty of the American College of Sports Medicine and is an advisor to a number of health and fitness publications, including Ms. Fitness Magazine and authored a nationally-syndicated column on health and nutrition. He has published numerous articles in magazines and scientific journals, and has been interviewed on more than 40 television programs, including appearances on all four major networks. In 1993 he was appointed to a faculty position on the National Board Review course in Sports Medicine. His book, The DHEA Breakthrough (Ballantine, 1996), reached bestseller status in six months, and his latest book, Caffeine Blues (Warner, 1998), was released in December.
- William C. Chilcott, Ph.D. is president and CEO of the Marine Testing Company which primarily does accident reconstruction and accident re-creation on small water craft. In addition, the company does research and development on safety equipment. Chilcott developed safe boat crashing techniques by study and accident re-creation and safe high-speed body entry techniques into water and has personally raced inboard hydroplanes for 21 years and owns and flies several aircraft. He was a senior engineer with the U.S. Air Force and is a registered Professional Engineer. Dr. Chilcott’s undergraduate work was at California State University, Sacramento and New College of San Francisco. He earned his doctorate in marine engineering from C.P.U.
- Judith Cornell Ph.D. an assistant professor in the department of Transpersonal Psychology at Holos University Graduate School founded by Dr. Norm Shealy MD. She is award-winning author of MANDALA: Luminous Symbols for Healing and founder and director of Mandala Training for facilitators. Her Ph.D. is from C.P.U.
- Ralph Davis Ph.D. earned the Distinguished Flying Cross presented in March 22, 2006. The audience of nearly 400 supported his achievements by giving Dr. Davis a standing ovation. He pursued a distinguished career in Air Force Civil Service at the Aeronautical Systems Center where he worked on numerous weapon systems, including tri-service and foreign military sales programs for missiles, fighter, bomber and cargo aircraft; helicopters; trainers and simulators, and was appointed deputy director of the Fighter Attack System Program Office (Boston, 2006). Davis attended the University of Cincinnati and later received a Ph.D. in management from C.P.U.
- Jeffrey Dillon, Ph.D. is a psychotherapist and psychological intern in Ventura, CA and actively networks with others in his field. He is the author of a recent article titled Education among the Eskimos and Indians living above the Arctic Circle in Alaska.
- Mitch Fadem Ph.D. holds a Ph.D. in Toxicology and Chemistry from C.P.U., attended Cleveland State University, Kent State University, the University of Vienna (Austria) and has lectured on toxicology and hazardous materials all over the world. A recognized international expert on bioaerosols, biological toxins and infectious diseases, he has worked for years as an analytical toxicologist/toxicologist, taught environmental science and toxicology at Kent State University for a decade and was the chief industrial toxicologist for the MetroHealth Medical in Cleveland, Ohio. Much of his research was with the U.S. Air Force in the area of Chemical and Biological Warfare decontamination and identification. He headed a team of scientists at the USDA Plum Island Animal Disease Center to create a new method for testing the efficacy of disinfectants against viruses and was the team leader for aerial application research for the Air Force. During his career he created, and was the Director of the Center for Emerging Technologies in Aerial Application Research and linked this center with the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology “VECTOR”. Under this program he conducted research in methods of wide-area decontamination to neutralize hazardous material releases including large oil spills in coastal waters, biological pathogens, toxic industrial chemicals and other toxins. From 2000 to 2004 he worked with the Air Force Operational Testing and Evaluation Center (AFOTEC) at Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, NM as a Senior Scientist and Subject Matter Expert for Chemical and Biological Defense Programs. AFOTEC is one of the lead test agencies for the operational testing of new Chem/Bio detection, decontamination and protection technologies for the US military. For the past two years he has been the editor of a toxicology journal titled Global Toxin Review. Dr. Fadem was also deployed to Kabul, Afghanistan to work with the Combined Security Transition Command, a NATO forces mission.
- Nathaniel Gadsden, Ph.D. is State Director for the Higher Education Equal Opportunities Program in Harrisburg, PA. Dr. Gadsden formerly served as a member of the board of the Human Relations Commission for the city of Harrisburg and as Vice President of Capitol Area Black Network.
- Lucille Gambardella Ph.D. is Professor of Nursing at Wesley College in Dover, Delaware. She is also Chair and Director of the Graduate Program in Nursing. She earned her Ph.D. degree from C.P.U., her MSN from Boston University and her B.S.N. from Villanova University. A clinical specialist in psychiatric/mental health, she is certified by the American Nurses Credentialing Center.
- Charles Gant, M.D., Ph.D., N.M.D. received a B.S. in chemistry from Hampden-Sydney College, a medical degree from the University of Virginia Medical School, a Ph.D. in psychology from C.P.U. and a N.M.D. from the American Naturopathic Medical Association. He has practiced Integrative Medicine, and has been a psychiatric consultant at several hospitals and clinics in the Central New York area. Dr. Gant pioneered nutritional treatments for addictions, worked as Medical Director at the Tully Hill Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation Center, as Medical Consultant at Syracuse Behavioral Healthcare, and as a private practitioner. Dr. Gant has lectured at the Syracuse University College of Law, and been affiliated with The American Academy of Psychiatrists in Alcoholism and Addictions and The American Society of Addiction Medicine. He has lectured extensively on nutritional and molecular medicine. Dr. Gant has devised nutritional and neuro-nutrient treatments for nicotine, alcohol and drug abuse problems and mental disorders, such as ADHD, anxiety, depression and bipolar disorder. These protocols are currently being duplicate around the world. Dr. Gant is the author of ADD and ADHD: Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Solutions (1999) and End Your Addictions Now (2002, Warner Books).
- Carol Kinsey Goman Ph.D. is a best selling author, consultant, radio TV personality and an adjunct faculty at the University of California. She has a Ph.D. from C.P.U. in Clinical Psychology and is a licensed therapist in private practice. Her publications now number over 200.
- Janet Greenwood, Ph.D., RN, Licensed Marriage, Family & Child Counselor and teaching graduate level communication and management courses for students and professionals at Bay Area colleges and universities. She has a B.S. from San Francisco State University, and a Ph.D. in Psychology from C.P.U. Registered Nurse, Registered, Art Therapist, California certified provider of Continuing Education for Licensed Clinical Social Workers and Marriage and Family Therapists. She has 25 years clinical experience working with individuals, couples and groups to achieve their relationship goals; managing corporate Employee Assistance Programs;
- Roger Geronimo, D.B.A. Dr. Geronimo has extensive experience in finance, economics, business development and planning, having worked with small companies and large corporations. He taught college for 17 years and has been part owner of two technology companies. In 1985 he was nominated by President Reagan for Deputy Undersecretary of Treasury. His D.B.A. is from C.P.U.
- Andy Gibbs M.B.A. is Chairman and founder of Patient Cafe, a major patent analysis company. He also is a very successful inventor, author, government advisor, TV personality (on the History and Discovery and other channels) and entrepreneur. He has a BA in engineering and an MBA from C.P.U.
- Chellis Glendinning Ph.D., is a psychologist, political activist, and author. Her books include: Off the Map: An Expedition Deep into Empire and the Global Economy, winner of the National Federation of Press Women 2000 Book Award; My Name Is Chellis and I’m in Recovery from Western Civilization; the Pulitzer Prize-nominated When Technology Wounds; and Waking Up in the Nuclear Age. She has written chapters for dozens of anthologies, and her work has appeared in numerous journals, magazines, and newspapers, including The San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco Bay Guardian, New Mexican, Utne Reader, Orion, La Herencia del Norte, Mother Jones, and Earth First! Journal. Glendinning attended Smith College, graduated Phi Beta Kappa from the University of California, Berkeley and received her doctorate in psychology from C.P.U. She is a licensed professional clinical counselor in the state of New Mexico.
- Carol Kinsey Goman PhD adjunct faculty at John F. Kennedy University in the International MBA program, at the University of California in the Executive Education Department. She is also a consulant for business and government, she has published over 200 articles in the fields of organizational change, leadership, innovation, the new employer-employee compact, employee engagement, change communications, attracting and retaining great people, creative collaboration, and international business practices. She has authored nine books, including This Isn’t the Company I Joined, The Loyalty Factor, and GHOST STORY, a business fable about the power of collaboration and is a frequent guest on radio and television shows discussing the “human side” of organizational transformation. She has been cited as an authority in media such as Industry Week, Investors Business Daily, CNN’s Business Unusual, and the NBC Nightly News. Received her Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from C. P. U. and was a therapist with a private practice specializing in short-term therapy.
- Janet Greeson Ph.D., Chairman, President and CEO, led the bold initiative that transformed Samaritan from a “one drug” Company to an innovative “Drug Development Pipeline” Biopharmaceutical Company. She strategically created a long-term value and growth model, with the Samaritan/Georgetown University collaboration; and is working to duplicate this growth model with other top tier Universities. Dr. Greeson is listed as a co-inventor on 18 patent applications, and has nine peer reviewed journal publications. She is a best selling author of It’s Not What You Are Eating, It’s What’s Eating You; and a renowned public speaker, whose guest appearances on numerous radio and TV Talk shows has opened the door to tell the Samaritan story in a concise and professional manner. Dr. Greeson holds a BA from Florida Technological University; an MA from Rollins College, and a Ph.D. from C.P.U.
- Chester Grundy Ph.D. is director of multicultural student programming at the University of Kentucky. He has a B.S. and a M.S. from Illinois State University and a Ph.D. in psychology from C.P.U.. He was also president of Parker & Parker resources development consulting and has worked with over 800 colleges and universities.
- Robert Guyon Ph.D. is Tutor Coordinator for Adult Basic Education at Idaho State University College of Technology. Dr. Guyon has a B.A. in History with a postgraduate in education from Idaho State University, an M.Ed. from Albertson College of Idaho in Counseling and School Leadership and a Ph.D. from Columbia Pacific University in Counseling. He has worked for thirty-four years as an educator including 3 years at Idaho State University as Placement Director and 3 years as a high school social studies teacher, seventeen years as an elementary teacher and principal, and eleven years as an elementary, junior high, and high school counselor. He is married to Dr. Kathleen Kangas, Associate Professor of Speech Pathology at Idaho State University.
- Merridy Hance, B.S. has focused much of her professional work on problems of aging and related social issues. In 1987 she developed a comprehensive computerization program for the Social Work Department of Harrison Memorial Hospital. She is a published author and poet; her work has appeared in the C.P.U. Review.
- Aftab Hassan, Ph.D., Educational Specialist at the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education of the City College of New York. His M.S. is from George Washington University; his Ph.D. from C.P.U. and he is also a Scientist at George Washington University.
- David R. Hawkins M.D., a graduate of Columbia University Medical school, is a distinguished psychiatrist, author, and consciousness researcher internationally known for his innovative work in applied Kinesiology and the nutritional treatment of mental diseases. In the 1970s Dr. Hawkins collaborated with Linus Pauling, the American chemist who revolutionized scientific thinking about the structure of molecules. Orthomolecular Psychiatry, Hawkins’ first influential tome, was co-authored with Pauling. In 1995 Dr. Hawkins received his Ph.D. degree from C.P.U.. He wrote his dissertation on the Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis and Calibration of the Levels of Human Consciousness. It has been published in book form as Power vs. Force: The Hidden Determinants of Human Behavior (Veritas Publishing) and has been translated into 15 languages. Dr. Hawkins has published numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals; and is the author of The Eye of the I, I: Reality and Subjectivity, Dialogues of Consciousness and Truth vs. Falsehood: How to Tell the Difference a 500 page volume published in 2005 by Axial Press of Toronto.
- Barbara L. Heller Ph.D. is a consultant, internationally known public speaker and author in the area of interpersonal relationships.
- Tsan Fai Ho Ph.D.. is project director of Networking Laboratories, Hong Kong. He has a BE from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, a MA from The University of Oklahoma, and a Ph.D. in business Administration from CPA.
- Joy Holloway PhD. Instructor of psychology at Carroll College, Helena, MT. She received her Ph.D. from C.P.U. and teaches General Psychology, Child Psychology, Adolescent Psychology, Abnormal Psychology, Theories of Personality, and Counseling Psychology.
- Rochelle Lynn Holt, Ph.D., is an accomplished American poet and playwright, has a BA from the University of Illinois, a MFA from the University of Iowa, and a Ph.D. from C.P.U. in English and Psychology.
- Gary Jarvis Ph.D. serves as the director of Brooks Health System’s biofeedback clinic. He earned his BA with a specialization in psychology from University of North Florida in 1984, a MS in health, and a Ph.D. in neurophysiology from C.P.U. He has served for the past three years as a member of the University of North Florida Institutional Review Board (IRB), which is charged with ensuring the protection of human subjects in research.
- Donald Jorgensen, Sr. Ph.D. is chairman and co-founder of Jorgensen Healthcare Associates, Inc., a behavioral health treatment and consultation firm in Tucson, AZ, operating inpatient and outpatient chemical dependency recovery centers, employee assistance programs, and national training/consulting services. He has served on the faculty of educational institutions both in California and Arizona.
- Captain Karen Kahn was a pilot for Continental Airlines for many years, and a captain on the Boeing 757/767, and runs Aviation Career Counseling. She is also the author of Flight Guide for Success: Tips and Tactics for the Aspiring Airline. A graduate of Verde Valley School, she attended Reed College, and obtained a degree in aviation from C.P.U.
- Patricia Kane PhD Haverford Wellness Center, Havertown, Pennsylvania and a consultant on essential fatty acid and membrane function. Her PhD is from C.P.U.
- Raymond Kolcaba Ph.D. professor at Cuyahoga Community College, has a BA from Adelbert College, a MA from Case Western Reserve University and a Ph.D. from C.P.U.
- Sher Kannar Ph.D., Professor, Natural Sciences Department, Stillman University. Her B.S. is from University of Dar es salaam, her M.S. from Clarkson University, and her Ph.D. from C.P.U.
- John Kersey, Ph.D. director of Marquess Educational Consultants, Ltd. (UK). In his history of distance learning study he wrote that a major development in its modern explosion was programs such as those at Columbia Pacific University [which] attained worldwide popularity and acclaim, with leading universities such as Harvard and Yale stating that they would be happy to consider graduates of such programs for admission to further degrees. (http://www.degree.com/articles/distance-learning.htm).
- Gerrit Knodt PhD professor of management at Audencia Nantes School of Management in France. He has a BA in history from the Kings College, a MA in counseling from Villanova University and a PhD in human resources development from C.P.U.
- Blaine Koops, Ph.D. a professor of education and social worker, is currently sheriff of Allegan County. He has a BA in counseling from C.P.U., a MA in social work from Grand Valley University, and a MA and Ph.D. from Western Michigan University in sociology.
- Dietmar Kotras Chief of Sales and Service for T-Systems in Austria. He has a BS from C.P.U., and a MBA from Leicester University.
- Joan Levine, Ph.D., Lecturer in Mild/Moderate Disabilities, California State University Fullerton’s College of Education. Her research Interests include Accommodations and Modifications, Learning Disabilities; Social Skills; Adults with Learning Disabilities; Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Her B.A., is from University of California, Los Angeles in Music Education, General Secondary, and Educationally Handicapped, her M.A. from California State University, Northridge is in Special Education of the Deaf, and her Ph.D. is from C.P.U. in Education.
- Horacio D. Lewis, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Spanish and Education at Delaware State University. Dr. Lewis holds four undergraduate and graduate degrees (Biology, Humanities, Urban Education), a Harvard Certificate in Multicultural Education and several Professional Certificates. He was appointed to a legislative committee which resulted in the creation of Delaware’s Department of Children and Family Services. He also obtained over $6 million in federal funds to provide staffing and educational support programs for Delaware School Districts. He was educated at Colegio Abel Bravo, The University of Panama, The Canal Zone College, Morningside College, Northeastern Illinois University, Harvard University, Columbia Pacific University, The University of Delaware and Delaware State University. Dr. Lewis, was the first Assistant Dean and Director of Latino Affairs at Indiana University, has been an administrator and/or faculty/consultant at Brown University (Education Lecturer, Administrator), Gallaudet University, Immaculata University, Temple University, Central Community College, Delaware Technical and Community College, Springfield College, Wilmington College, Governor’s State University, the University of Delaware, and Delaware State University.
- Robert Marshall, Ph.D. received his PhD from C.P.U., Mill Valley, California and a Certified Clinical Nutritionist (CCN) degree from the International and American Association of Clinical Nutritionists, Texas. He was the President of the Association from 1998-2000. Dr. Marshall is one of the authors of the first Computerized Nutrition and Health Habits Evaluation, which has proven invaluable to many doctors to help evaluate their patients’ nutritional needs.
- Warren G. McDonald Ph.D. Professor of Health Care Administration at Methodist University. He has a B.A. from Eckerd College an M.A. from Vermont College of Norwich University, a M.A. from East Carolina University, a Ph.D. from Columbia Pacific University, and a Ph.D. from Touro University International.
- Stephen R. Merriman Ph.D., director of Four Rives Counseling Services, consultant, and trainer, holds an M.Ed from Harvard in counseling, and a Ph.D. in Psychology from C.P.U. He is a licensed therapist as a psychotherapist, and also as a alcohol and substance abuse counselor.
- Mark Mincolla, Ph.D. popular author, speaker, radio and television personality in the health and nutrition field. He has a BA in psychology from Franklin Pierce College, a M.A. in nutrition from Goddard College, and a Ph.D. in health and human services from C.P.U.
- Edison de Mello, MD, Ph.D. is the Founder and Medical Director of the Akasha Center for Integrative Medicine in Santa Monica, California, Dr. Edison de Mello is a board certified family physician and a licensed psychotherapist. His practice bridges the gap between Western and Eastern Medicine. He graduated with a BA in Psychology from the University of North Texas, a MA in Psychology from California State University in Long Beach, and a Ph.D. in Health and Human Services from C.P.U.. He wrote his Ph.D. dissertation titled Gut Feelings-A Psychosocial Approach to Gastrointestinal Illness. In 1999 Dr. de Mello completed his medical residency at Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City.
- Gerry Milligan MS Assistant Professor of Nursing Oklahoma Baptist University Shawnee, OK. He has a BA from Northeastern State College, a BS from Texas Christian University and an M.S. from C.P.U.
- Judge Raymond Morris. Earned his MA from C.P.U. in criminal justice and is very involved in community activities.
- Samuel R. Mozes Ph.D. Professor of Urban Studies at Long Island University, a city planer for New York, and director of the Bureau of Urban Affairs of the New York State Division of Housing. He has a BA from Columbia School of Architecture, and a Ph.D. from C.P.U. in environmental Science.
- Ronald Newcomb, Ph.D. professor, college of science San Diego State University. He has a B.S. in management from C.P.U., an A.S. in Law from Miramar College, a M.S. and Ph.D. in nutrition from American College of Nutrition. He has done extensive consulting with the U.S. Navy and others in the area of research and design including a geothermal desalination device. Patents: USPTO Patent #6,741,000 Electro-Magnetic Archimedean Screw Motor-Generator: 10/414,870 Humate Production, Multiple Geothermal.
- Patrick O’Hara, Ph.D. is a managing and marketing computer and related technologies professional with large computer and Silicon Valley entrepreneurial companies. He is President of O-TEK Enterprises (a management and technology consulting firm) and the author of several books on marketing and computerizing small businesses.
- Athina Karamanlis Ph.D. is the author of numerous textbooks on European law; holds an M.A. in economics and a J.D. from the University of Athens, and a Ph.D. in international business law from C.P.U., licensed by the Greek supreme court and arbitration courts in London, Paris, and Vienna; a lawyer of the European Court of Justice in Brussels; a legal consultant for the State of New York; and senior partner in a law firm practicing under the auspices of the European Union.
- James Kilgore MA. professor at Cuyahoga Community College in Cleveland Ohio. His BA is from Wiley College, and his MA from The University of Missouri and a second MA is from C.P.U. He has published 9 volumes of poetry and was named Ohio Poet of the year.
- Lee Kitay, Ph.D. computer consultant, has his Ph.D. and M.S. from C.P.U. and four degrees from other schools including Robert Walsh College. He runs a highly successful consulting business, and provides training is a wide variety of areas related to computers and electronics.
- Richard L Kozlenko D.P.M., M.P.H., Ph.D. UCLA, has had a career as an author, editor and college professor. He has a BS in Zoology and Biology UCLA SCHOOL OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH, Master’s in Nutritional Biochemistry and Public Health (MPH), Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (DPM) CALIFORNIA COLLEGE OF PODIATRIC MEDICINE, Doctor of Philosophy, Wellness Education (Ph.D.) CPU. He is the primary author of two nutraceutical patent-pending inventions in association with the University of Scranton Dept. of Food Chemistry, Joe Vinson Ph.D. 2001, 2002, the Nutritional Editor, Healing, Health and Happiness Publishing, 1999; Associate Editor and Writer, Health World Magazine, 1993-1996; Stepping Stones To Nutritional Awareness, CPU Press, 1978, Lifestyle and Environment, computerized wellness curriculum for Columbia Pacific University, 1987, Color Code System, behavioral modification program for changing eating habits and food selection patterns Psychology Today, “Eating Habits of Americans,” co-authored with Sam Keen, Oct. 1979; Prevention Magazine, major interviews in three issues, 1979.
- Leo Niehorster PhD is the author of several books on World War II and the webmaster of a popular World War II website. He has a PhD from C.P.U. in history.
- Judith L. Mathews, R.N., Ph.D. Dean and Clinical Assistant Professor at Union County College. She has a B.S.N. from C.P.U., a MS from Wagner College, and a Ph.D. from C.P.U.
- William A. McAdams Ph.D. adjunct associate professor of nuclear engineering and engineering physics at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in George and Associate Editor for the Health Physics Journal. He has a B.S. in radiological health from Duquesne University, a MS in Health Physics from Georgia Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in applied physics from C.P.U. He was awarded the American Board of Health Physics William A. McAdams award. Formerly on the staff of Radiation Service Organization in Laurel, Maryland as the Radiation Safety Officer before he pursued a career in power reactor health physics.
- Jane Pagel Ph.D. is Vice-President of Government and Corporate Affairs at Jacques Whitford Ltd., one of Canada’s largest employee-owned consulting engineering, environmental science and earth sciences companies. Her previous industry positions include Vice President, Corporate and Government Affairs with Philip Services Corp., President of Zenon Environmental Laboratories, and head of the Environmental Sciences Department at the former Ontario Hydro. Dr. Pagel has also held a number of executive positions in the Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Colleges and Universities and Management Board Secretariat. She holds a B.Sc., D.Bact. and M.S. in microbiology from the University of Toronto, and a Ph.D. from C.P.U. (her C.P.U. thesis advisor was a University of Toronto professor).
- Carol Patterson-Rudolph, M.A. has spent the past 16 years developing her skills as an interpreter of Native American petroglyphs, requiring in-depth study of the belief systems and ceremonies of Native American people. Her training is in the traditional fine arts and art history along with formal studies of cultural anthropology. She has numerous publications and has completed many educational productions.
- Anthony Payne PhD is an author, and health professional. He was editor of Biological Medicine Newsletter. He has a BS in paleoanthropology from C.P.U. and a PhD from St. Marks Pomano Byzantine Catholic College. He has also published widely in the peer reviewed journals.
- Peter W. Pick Ph.D. has a BA in Art History from Hunter college, a MA in art history from Columbia University, advanced graduate work from the University of Michigan and a Ph.D. from C.P.U.. He was a Fulbright scholar and founded the museum curation program at San Francisco State University. For much of his career he was a field archaeologist working in various Arabic states, Sweden, and also Germany. He has spent the last decade as a researcher working on the Dead Sea Scrolls with Neil Altman in Philadelphia.
- Kenneth R. Pyle, PC is president of Rising Sun School of Music in Rising Sun, MD. He has a BS from Excelsior College in New York, a MA from C.P.U., and a law degree from Widener University School of Law (cum laude).
- Patrick L. Reilly, Ph.D. is General Manager and co-founder of IsoQuantic Technologies, LLC. He specializes in communications network architecture, design, and analysis. His Ph.D. is from C.P.U.
- Homer C. Rice PhD served as President of the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics. He attended Centre College for his BA, Eastern Kentucky University for his MA and C.P.U, for his PhD. After serving as head offensive coach at the University of Kentucky and the University of Oklahoma, Dr. Rice subsequently was head coach at the University of Cincinnati, Rice University and of the professional Cincinnati Bengals. Dr. Rice has been director of athletics at three universities – the University of North Carolina, Rice University and Georgia Tech. A civic leader, a prolific author, and popular speaker and lecturer, Dr. Rice is one of the pre-eminent leaders in college athletics. He is particularly committed to maintaining the importance of academics in college athletics and has said that nothing is more important than “our total mission of helping student-athletes get a quality education.”
- Tom Ritchie PhD is an instructor of math (Pre-calculus, Trig and Algebra) at McGill-Toolen High School, a private school in Mobile, Al. He has AB in math from University of Alabama, a MS in math from U.S.A. and a PhD in Educational Leadership from C.P.U.
- William Rogers Ph.D. president and CEO Behavior Research Institute, San Antonio, TX. His Bio-Technology research includes in Electromagnetic Brain Animation generation, a superior method of using magnetic fields in conjunction with ultrasonic directional and dynamic wave patterns to successfully treat mental difficulties such as depression, overanxious disorder, dysthymia, attention deficit disorder, panic attacks, pervasive developmental disorder, memory dysfunction, learning disabilities and autism.
- Brad A. Roy PhD F.A.C.S.M. Is the director of The Summit, Kalispell Regional Medical Center for health promotion and fitness, Kalispell, Montana. He has a MA from San Diego State University and a PhD from C.P.U., both in exercise physiology.
- Robert Rushowy, Ph.D. is a member of the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, has BA from Queen’s University, and a M.A. and Ph.D. from C.P.U. He is a professional arbitrator and mediator.
- Diana Schackman MBA is an adjunct professor at Florida Community College and is a consultant for, among other companies, Walt Disney World, AT&T, Sears Credit, NASCAR, and many others. She has a BA from C.P.U and a MBA from Jacksonville University, Florida.
- Robert Shurney PhD American Space Scientist and Engineer worked with the weight distribution of the Saturn V rocket. The precise flight of the colossal rocket was critical to the landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. The successful launch of the first Saturn V rocket occurred on November 9, 1967. For this accomplishment he received a personal citation from Dr. Werner Von Braun, Director of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Shurney participated in all of the Apollo flights including the first landing of an astronaut on the moon in the summer of 1969. He also participated in the design of the Apollo Moon Rover. In 1971 astronauts James Irwin and David Scott became the first men to drive the rover on the Moon. In this Apollo 15 mission the two astronauts traveled more than twenty-seven kilometers during their three-day visit to the Moon. The rover was also successfully used in the final two Apollo missions, Apollo 16 and Apollo 17. He also developed a device to measure vibrations beneath the lunar surface. With a group of other NASA scientists worked on the Skylab program, employing the hardware used in earlier Apollo missions. Shurney also investigated problems related to the human body during extended periods of weightlessness designing systems and devices to allow the astronauts to function in a gravity free environment. He attended Meharry Medical College, Howard University, the University of Michigan, the University of Alabama, the University of Oklahoma and received his PhD in physics from C.P.U. Dr. Shurney wrote many technical manuals and scientific journal articles. For his achievements he was awarded the First Lunar Apollo Flight Medal, the Apollo Achievement Prize and the Skylab Achievement Award, and The Smithsonian celebrated him with a special exhibition.
- Patsy Ford Simms Ph.D., a retired teacher, has written over 300 songs for the educational and church markets with several leading publishing companies, including Shawnee Press. She began writing choral octavos for the junior high/middle school voice during the first decade of her teaching career. She received a B.S. in Music Education from Knoxville College, a M.Ed. from the University of Louisville and a Ph.D. in Music Education from C.P.U. Retired from teaching full time after 30 years in grades K-12 and at the Youth Performing Arts School, she now teaches part-time at an alternative school (grades K-8) in Louisville, Kentucky and is a writer/arranger with Shawnee Press and other major publishers.
- Elaine Solowey Ph.D. is a faculty and manager of the experimental orchards of the Arava Institute for Environmental Studies at Kibbutz Ketura. Dr. Solowey has a Ph.D in Land Reclamation from Columbia Pacific University/Utah State University. She was recently named adjunct professor at the University of Georgia and was the primary lecturer at the Indigenous Fruit Tree Conference held by the Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations at Matopos Reserve in Bulweyo, Zimbabwe. She is the author of numerous papers on salt tolerant crops and the book Small Steps Towards Abundance: Crops for a More Sustainable Agriculture.
- Norma M. Sparso, R.N., B.S.N., M.B.A., Ph.D. professor at Hartford Graduate Center teaching Quality Improvement in Healthcare. Within the hospital setting, her positions have included Vice President of Patient Care, Assistant Director of Nursing, and Assistant Administrator. She received her Ph.D. in Health and Human Services from C.P.U., her M.B.A is from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and her B.S.N. is from Southern Connecticut State College. Dr. Sparso is a member of the American College of Healthcare Executives, the American Organization of Nurse Executives, and formerly served on the President’s Council of the National Association of Quality Assurance Professionals.
- Bernie Steele Ph.D. is senior manager of research and development at MBI, a wholly owned subsidiary of Michigan State University. Previously he was a faculty member at Auburn University and at the University of Tennessee/Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He has a B.S. and M.S. in microbiology from Auburn University and a Ph.D. in biology from C.P.U.
- Keith Spennewyn MSc, CPT Managing Director holds a triple BS degree from Missouri State University and a Masters Degree in Health Science from C.P.U. Spennewyn has worked in the health fitness arena for over 20 years delivering talks internationally and across the US. With experience in management assisting in the operation of multiple health clubs, and having worked with World Champion athletes as well as the obese and frail, he brings a diverse view to the pursuit of health and fitness. He has authored over a dozen training manuals from senior fitness concepts to specialized personal training and rehabilitation. He is certified by the National Academy of Sports Medicine and the American College of Sports Medicine and holds several additional certifications from the National Institute of health Science and Power Plate International.
- Sweet Ph.D. is a founding member of Montessori Educational Programs International (MEPI), the International Montessori Council and the Peace Academy. He has been instrumental in starting approximately 50 schools and has prepared hundreds of Montessori guides through her educational programs with the Institute for Guided Studies. Her experiences in the Montessori approach have been gained through her involvement in U.S. and international schools, private schools located in homes, churches, childcare facilities, and as a leader and teacher trainer in Montessori public school programs in eleven school districts in South Carolina. Dr. Sweet earned her BS in Applied Behavioral Science from University of California, Davis, a M.S. from the University of South Carolina in Early Childhood Education, and a Ph.D. in Philosophy with an emphasis in Adult Education from C.P.U. Her Montessori credentials were earned through the Montessori Institute of America (MIA) and Montessori Educational Programs International (MEPI).
- Barbara Taylor, M.A. has a combination of general business and technical/computer background, specializing in pro-active approaches to business challenges, using creativity and positive employee motivation to improve productivity. As a management consultant and trainer, she has worked with major corporations, public sector agencies, and entrepreneurial businesses.
- Dave Thiessen Ph.D. Social science professor at Lewis-Clark State College, earned two baccalaureate degrees and a Master’s degree from the University of Idaho, and a Ph.D. from C.P.U. He was one of 35 academic, business and government leaders from around the world invited to be a part of the Oxford University Roundtable in Oxford, England. The theme for the Roundtable was “History and International Politics: A Guide to the 21st Century.” The Roundtable focused on the 18-20th centuries’ influence on today’s globalization in the United States, Europe, Eurasia, China and Japan.
- George Vuilleumire B.S. spent his entire career in law enforcement. His work included as a Internal Affairs agent for the U.S. Treasury, an undercover agent, and chief of the U. S. Treasury’s Southwest Region. He has produced a number of law enforcement training films and has written extensively for the Chief of Police magazine. He also published a book titled It’s a Cop’s Life. His B.S. is from C.P.U.
- Charlotte Warren, Ph.D. teaches courses such as Rhythmic Training, Piano Performance, and Music and Stress Management at Rockland County Community College and Orange County Community College. Her research is in the holistic approach to music instruction and performance, specifically on the effects of the brain on the production of music and the effects of music on the brain. In Her Ph.D. is from C.P.U.
- Larry Ward Ph.D., co-founder of World Vision and founder of Food for the Hungry, has a BS from Wheaton College and a M.A. and Ph.D. from C.P.U.
- Guy Wells, Ph.D. is founder of the Alternative Education Association, an organization dedicated to the professional and educational development of graduates of non-traditional high school and college programs. Dr. Wells’ degrees are in criminology and police administration. He is licensed as a Security Agency Manager and as a Private Investigator, and owns Wells Investigative Services in Orlando, FL.
- Linda Wells Ph.D. until her recent death was a president of several pharmacies and benefit management companies in California. She had a B.S. in pharmacy from the University of Wyoming, a MS in mental health from C.P.U., and a Ph.D. from C.P.U. in chemical dependency. The University of Wyoming Pharmacy Learning Resource Center is named honor in of her many important contributions to the university. She also attended Harvard University Business school.
- Jerome Workman Ph.D. is director of Research in the Department of Molecular Spectroscopy and Microanalysis at the Thermo-Electron Corporation. Dr. Workman received numerous awards for outstanding achievements in science and is also a senior research fellow at Kimberly-Clark Corporation. The author of hundreds of published scientific papers, technical reports and book chapters, Dr. Workman is the Editor of the Handbook of Organic Compounds (Academic press) and has served on faculty at St. Mary’s University and the University of Washington. He received a B.A. cum laude in the natural sciences and a M.A. in biology from St. Mary’s University, and a Ph.D. in biological chemistry from C.P.U., as well as an Executive Management Certificate from Columbia University, New York.
- Sharon Ann Wulf, Ph.D. visiting assistant professor of management at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worrceester, MA. Dr. Wulf earned a BS in management at Providence College, an M.B.A. from Northeastern University, and a Ph.D. in management at C.P.U.. She is also president of Enterprise Systems, an organizational and business development company, and has held senior management positions in business development at two Fortune 500 companies.
- David Young Ph.D. is Graduate Research Professor of Theater and Dance at the University of Florida. He was the Producing Director of the American College Theater Festival (ACTF) at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington DC for over 15 years. ACTF programs involve more than 450 colleges and universities with an audience numbering more than a million annually. The recipient of the American Association of Community Theater National Patrons Award, Dr. Young directed almost 100 productions, including many musicals. As a professional actor he has appeared on TV shows and in Broadway productions. The author of How to Direct a Musical (Routledge Books, 1995), Prof. Young has taught classes in directing, acting and musical theater in the U.S., as well as in Brazil, China, Senegal, and Greece. A graduate of the New School for Social Research in New York, he earned his Ph.D. from C.P.U.
- Yang Xiaoguang Ph.D., Professor of Photography and Dean at Dalian Medical University. Yang completed his MA at C.P.U. before returning to Dalian to help establish the College. He has an excellent research record, having published more than 20 articles and 8 books. He was visiting scholar at University of California, Berkeley from 1988-1990 and has recently become involved in documentary filmmaking. His film productions include in Uganda and his latest is in China for the Olympics.
- Carol Cox Ph.D., M.S., M.A. Ed., PG Dip Ed, B.S. (Hons), R.N., Professor of Nursing, Advanced Clinical Practice, and Acting Deputy Director, Institute of Health Sciences. Her many professional publications include the following:
Hall, A., Porrett, T. and Cox, C. (2006) “Factors that affect medication compliance in inflammatory bowel disease”, Journal of Gastrointestinal Nursing, 4(5):31-40.
Shaha, M., Cox, C., Porrett, T. and Hall, A. (2006) “The omnipresence of cancer and its practice implications for colorectal cancer”, Cancer Nursing Practice, 5(4):35-39.
Cox, C., Reynolds, T., Cole, E., Wandrag, M., Breckenridge, S. and Dingle, M. (2006) “Implications of Cultural Diversity in Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR) Decision Making”, Multicultural Nursing and Health, 12(1): 28.
Fisher, J., Cox, C. and Steggall, M. (2006) “Accident and Emergency Nurse Practitioner Role Evolution”, Emergency Nurse, 13(10):26-31.
Ball, Carol Ann and Cox, Carol Lynn (2004) “Part two: The core components of legitimate influence and the conditions that constrain or facilitate advanced nursing practice in adult critical care”, International Journal of Nursing Practice, 10: 10-20.
Ball, Carol Ann and Cox, Carol Lynn (2003) “Part 1: Restoring Patients to Health – Outcomes and Indicators of Advanced Nursing Practice in Adult Critical Care”, International Journal of Nursing Practice.
Cox, Carol L., Boswell, Graham, McGrath, Anthony, Reynolds, Tanya and Cole, Elaine (2003) “Examination of the A&E Patient With Cranial Nerve Damage,” Emergency Nurse, ISSN 1354-5752.
Cox, Carol Lynn (2004) Physical Assessment for Nurses, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
Cox, Carol Lynn, (2004) “History Taking”, in Cox, Carol Lynn (ed.), Physical Assessment for Nurses, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
Cox, Carol Lynn, (2004) “General Examination”, in Cox, Carol Lynn (ed.), Physical Assessment for Nurses, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
Cox, Carol Lynn, (2004) “Examination of the Cardiovascular System”, in Cox, Carol Lynn (ed.), Physical Assessment for Nurses, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
Cox, Carol Lynn, (2004) “Examination of the Respiratory System”, in Cox, Carol Lynn (ed.), Physical Assessment for Nurses, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
Cox, Carol Lynn, (2004) “Assessment of the Pediatric Patient”, in Cox, Carol Lynn (ed.), Physical Assessment for Nurses, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
Cox, Carol Lynn, (2004) “Assessment of Disability Including Care of the Older Adult”, in Cox, Carol Lynn (ed.), Physical Assessment for Nurses, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
Cox, Carol Lynn, (2004) “Basic Examination, Notes and Diagnostic Principles”, in Cox, Carol Lynn (ed.), Physical Assessment for Nurses, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
Cox, Carol Lynn, (2004) “Presenting Cases and Communication”, in Cox, Carol Lynn (ed.), Physical Assessment for Nurses, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
Cox, Carol Lynn, (2004) “Imaging Techniques and Clinical Investigations”, in Cox, Carol Lynn (ed.), Physical Assessment for Nurses, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
Cox, Carol Lynn, (2004) “The 12-Lead Electrocardiogram”, in Cox, Carol Lynn (ed.), Physical Assessment for Nurses, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
Cox, Carol Lynn, (2004) “Interpretation of Investigations”, in Cox, Carol Lynn (ed.), Physical Assessment for Nurses, Oxford, Blackwell Science.
Shaha, Maya and Cox, Carol Lynn (2003) The Omnipresence of Cancer. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 7 (3): 191-196.
Cox, Carol L. (2003) “Can nurse practitioners replace junior doctors?” Nursing Times, 99(3):18.
Washbourne, C. and Cox, C. (2002) Per Vagina (PV) Bleeding in Early Pregnancy. Emergency Nurse, 10(8):21-25.
Cox, C (2002) (Ed) Enhancing the Practice Experience. Chichester, Nursing Praxis International.
Cox, L. Carol (2002) Advancing Practice for Nursing, Practice Nursing 2002, 13(9):406-408.
Bialoskurski, M., Cox, C., Wiggins, R. (2002) “The Relationship Between Maternal Needs and Priorities in a Neonatal Intensive Care Environment”, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 37(1): 62 – 69.
Boswell, Graham and Cox, Carol L. (2002) “Day Case Discectomy and Integrative Therapies: One Patient’s Story” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 6(1): 69 – 75.
Cox, Carol Lynn (2002) “Complementary Therapies for Cardiac Health”, in Hatchett, R. and Thompson, D. (eds.), Cardiac Nursing: A Comprehensive Guide, Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone.
Cox, Carol Lynn (2001) “Respiratory Assessment” in Esmond, G. (ed.), Textbook of Respiratory Care, Churchill Livingstone.
Cox, Carol Lynn and Reyes-Hughes, Adrian (2001) Clinical Effectiveness In Practice, Houndsmills Basingstoke, Palgrave.
Cox, Carol Lynn and Ahluwalia, Sonya (2001) Clinical Effectiveness, Nursing Diagnosis and the Role of the Clinical Nurse Specialist and Nurse Practitioner, in Cox, Carol Lynn and Reyes-Hughes, Adrian (eds.) Clinical Effectiveness In Practice, Houndsmills Basingstoke, Palgrave.
Cox, Carol Lynn and Ahluwalia, Sonya (2001) Factors that Foster and Hinder Clinically Effective Care of Clinical Nurse Specialists and Nurse Practitioners: A Qualitative Study, in Cox, Carol Lynn and Reyes-Hughes, Adrian (eds.) Clinical Effectiveness In Practice, Houndsmills Basingstoke, Palgrave.
Cox, Carol Lynn and Ahluwalia, Sonya (2001) Clinical Effectiveness and the Realities of Practice: A National Quantitative Study, in Cox, Carol Lynn and Reyes-Hughes, Adrian (eds.) Clinical Effectiveness In Practice, Houndsmills Basingstoke, Palgrave.
Cox, Carol Lynn (2001) Alteration in Comfort: Caring for the Patient Using Complementary Therapies, in Cox, Carol Lynn and Reyes-Hughes, Adrian (eds.) Clinical Effectiveness In Practice, Houndsmills Basingstoke, Palgrave.
Cox, Carol L. (2001) “Advanced nurse practitioners and physician assistants: what is the difference? Comparing the USA and UK”, Hospital Medicine Journal, 62(3):169 – 171.
Cox, Carol L. and Bialoskurski, Maria (2001) “Communication factors in facilitating attachment”, British Journal of Nursing, 10(10):668 – 676.
Shaha, Maya and Cox, Carol L. (2001) “The Dasein of Colorectal Cancer, an Ontological Study” in Willman, A. and Neilson, R. (eds.) Critical Appraisal, Nursing Theories in Practice, Education and Research Monographs, Grafiska Punkten, Vaxjo, 1(1):128 – 135
Cox, Carol L. and Ahluwalia, Sonya (2000) “Enhancing Clinical Effectiveness Among Clinical Nurse Specialists”, British Journal of Nursing, 9(16):1064 – 1073.
Cox, Carol L. and Boswell, Graham (2000) “Integrating Complementary Health Care in Outpatient Surgery for Discectomy: the Patient’s Perspective”, Journal of Orthopaedic Nursing, 4(12):179-184.
Cox, Carol L. (2000) Clinical Governance and Shared Governance, Practice Nursing, 11(16):17 – 20.
Cox, Carol Lynn (2000) “The Principles of Abdominal Assessment”, Practice Nursing, 11(4): 12 – 20.
Cox, Carol Lynn (2000) “Varying Perspectives on Post-Modernism”, Sacred Space Journal, 1(2): 50 – 51.
Cox, Carol Lynn (2000) “Nurse Consultant: The Advanced Nurse Practitioner?”, Nursing Times, 96(13):48.
Cox, Carol L. and Hayes, Julie Ann (2000) “Physiologic and Psychosomatic Responses of Critical Care Patients to the Administration of Therapeutic Touch”, in Freshwater, D. (ed.) Making a Difference, Chichester, Nursing Praxis International.
Hayes, Julie Anne and Cox, Carol Lynn (2000) “Immediate Effects of a Foot Massage in Intensive Care”, Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 6(1):9 – 13.
Bialoskurski, M., Cox, C. and Hayes, J. (1999) “The Nature of Attachment in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit”, Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 13(1):66 – 77.
Cox, Carol L. (1999) Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Clinical Curriculum and Certification Review, Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 15(2):120.
Cox, Carol Lynn and Hayes, Julie Anne (1999) “Physiologic and Psychodynamic Responses to Receiving Therapeutic Touch in Critical Care”, Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 5(3):87 – 92.
Cox, Carol Lynn and Hayes, Julie Anne (1999) “Experiences of Administering and Receiving Therapeutic Touch in Intensive Care”, Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 15(5); 283 – 287.
Cox, Carol Lynn and Hayes, Julie Anne (1999) “Physiologic and Psychodynamic Responses to Receiving Therapeutic Touch in Critical Care”, Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 15(6):363 – 368.
Cox, Carol Lynn and McGrath, Anthony (1999) “Respiratory Assessment in Critical Care Units”, Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 15(4);226 – 234.
Hayes, Julie Anne and Cox, Carol Lynn (1999) “The Experience of Therapeutic Touch from a Nursing Perspective”, British Journal of Nursing, 8(18):1249 – 1254.
Hayes, Julie Anne and Cox, Carol Lynn (1999) “The Integration of Complementary Therapies in North and South Thames Regional Health Authorities Critical Care Units”, Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 5(4):103 -108.
Hayes, Julie Anne and Cox, Carol Lynn (1999) “Immediate Effects of a Five Minute Foot Massage in Intensive Care”, Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 15(2):77 – 82.
Cox, Carol Lynn and Hayes, Julie Anne (1998) “Experiences of Administering and Receiving Therapeutic Touch in Intensive Care”, Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 4(5):128 – 133.
McGrath, Anthony and Cox, Carol Lynn (1998) “Cardiac and Circulatory Assessment in Intensive Care Units”, Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 14(6):283 – 287.
Cox, Carol Lynn (1997) “Competency-Based Continuing Education in Critical Care”, in Bryczynski, Gosia (ed.), Caring: The compassion and wisdom of nursing, London, Arnold.
Cox, Carol Lynn (1997) St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery Advanced Practice: Physical Assessment, London, City University Press.
Cox, Carol Lynn (1997) “Implementing Therapeutic Touch in Intensive Care”, In Papp, Inkeri (ed.), Research Based Nursing, Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla Polytechnic School of Health.
Cox, Carol Lynn and Hayes, Julie Anne (1997) “Reducing Anxiety: The Employment of Therapeutic Touch as a Nursing Intervention”, Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 3(6):163 – 167.
Cox, Carol Lynn (1996) “The Advanced Nurse Practitioner in Complementary Therapies,” Holistic Nurses Association Newsletter, 3( 2):1-2.
Cox, Carol Lynn (1996) “The Nurse’s Ability to Care,” Holistic Nurses Association Newsletter, 3(1):19-23, January.
Freeman, R., Moulton, D., Cox, C. and Miles, A. (1996) Shaping the future: Practice focused teaching and learning, London.
- Percival Fernandez, Ph.D., was appointed Director of St. John’s Medical College in charge of three major institutions, a hospital with 850 beds, a medical school with 400 undergraduate and post-graduate students, and a college with nearly 1,000 support staff. Interestingly, the oldest C.P.U. graduate,
- Lloyd Maxwell, Ph.D. (economics), was 95 at his C.P.U. graduation.
- Dr. Roman Frankel is founder of The Healing Place, a substance abuse treatment facility in Farmington Hills, MI. A few more of the hundreds of distinguished academics and professionals with degrees from C.P.U. include the following:
- Shaffdeen A. Amuwo, Ph.D., Associate Dean, Community, Government, and Alumni Affairs, Clinical Assistant Professor, Community Health Sciences, UIC School of Public Health.
- Randy Armstrong, B.A., Instructor, Phillips Exeter Academy.
- Dana M. Barry, Ph.D., technical writer and editor, Clarkson University’s Center of Advanced Materials Processing (CAMP), Clarkson University. He has been awarded the APEX award for publication excellence for five straight years. Her B.A. and M.S. are in chemistry, and her Ph.D. from C.P.U. is in science education.
- Harvey Bauman, Ph.D., Visiting Professor of Business, Lees-McRae College.
- Lewis Bornmann, Ph.D., Professor of Math, Mesa State College.
- James Bosworth, Ph.D., Faculty, Colorado State University.
- Frank J. Bracelin, Ph.D., Health Sciences Department, City University Los Angeles.
- Timothy Brady, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Southwest Texas State University.
- Tania Bridgeman, Ph.D. RN, University of California Irvine Medical Center, Orange, California.
- Donald Burleson, Ph.D., Director of Developmental Studies Lab, Eastern New Mexico University.
- Rudolph D. Calabrese, Ph.D., Adjunct Professor, The Institute for the Psychological Sciences.
- Rick Chimblo, Ph.D. Director, HARC’s Geotechnology Research Institute, Houston Advanced Research Center. His MS is in geophysics from the University of Tulsa and his Ph.D. is from C.P.U.
- James Chopyak, Ph.D., Music Department, California State University, Sacramento.
- Paul F. Cimmino, Ph.D., Visiting Professor of Social Work, Walla Walla College.
- Lynn Collins, Ph.D, President Lynn Collins and Associates, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
- Judy Compton, Ph.D., Business/Management faculty, Lester L. Cox College of Nursing and Health Sciences.
- Ralph Cooper, Ph.D. in Musical Arts, Adjunct Instructor, Piano, Brewton-Parker College.
- William B. Cooper, music faculty, Hampton University, Hampton, VA.
- John A. Cosco, Ph.D., Business Law Instructor, Kansas Wesleyan University, Salina, KS.
- Jeane Crowther, Ph.D., General Education Professor, Huntington Junior College.
- Alice M. Defriese, Ph.D., faculty, College of Medicine, University of Arizona.
- Jeff Dillon, Ph.D. Adjunct Professor, Azusa Pacific University.
- Glenn Donnelly, Ph.D., R.N. Assistant Professor, College of Nursing University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
- John Dovelos, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, licensed psychotherapist, Breyer State University.
- Priscilla Ebersole R.N., Professor of Nursing, San Francisco State University.
- William Paul Emmerling, Ed.D., Professor, Breyer State University.
- Michael Fadem, faculty, Kent State University.
- Laurie A. Fitzgerald, Ph.D., Senior Practitioner, The Consultancy Inc., Professor, Jones International University, Englewood, CO.
- James A. Fowlie, Sr., Ph.D., Lecturer, School of Graduate Studies, Anna Maria College, Paxton, MA.
- Carl T. Gass, Ph.D., Human Services Professor, Missouri Valley College, Marshall, MO.
- Roger Geronimo, Ph.D., Director of Business Services, Central Connecticut University.
- Mary Granley Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Nursing, Aurora College.
- Paul E. Greene, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Education, Piedmont College.
- Robert Guyon, Ph.D., Tutor Coordinator, Adult Basic Education, Idaho State University College of Technology. He has a BA in history from Idaho State University, a Med from Albertson College in counseling and a Ph.D. from C.P.U. in counseling.
- Bruce Heald, Ph.D. History faculty, Plymouth State College and Babes-Bolyai University in Rumania.
- Gerti Heider, R.N. Nursing faculty, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey.
- James Ho, Ph.D., Professor, Cogswell College.
- Rene Hollander, B.S., M.S., Psychology Professor, Ryokan College.
- Dale R. Hoyt, B.A., Lecturer in Catholic School Leadership, St. Mary’s University.
- Agnes Huff, Ph.D., President and CEO, Agnes Huff Communications Group, LLC, Howard Hughes Center, Los Angeles, CA.
- Don Trent Jacobs, Ph.D., Associate Professor, College of Education, Northern Arizona University. Formerly Adjunct Professor at University of California, Berkeley.
- Gregory Jantz, Ph.D., Board of Regents, Columbus Evangelical Seminary, founder and administrator, The Center for Counseling and Health Resources, Washington State licensed counseling center, Edmonds, WA.
- Richard I. Kagel, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Brigham Young University.
- Sher Kannar, Ph.D, Professor, Department of Natural Sciences, Stillman College.
- Charles Killingsworth Ph.D., faculty, Pittsburgh State University.
- J. Philip Kittel, Ph.D., Computer Applications, Douglasville, Georgia.
- Robert R. Klepper, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Microbiology and Botany, Buena Vista University and Professor, of Chemistry, Iowa Lakes Community College. He has a B.S., from Buena Vista University, an M.S. from Iowa State University, and a Ph.D., from C.P.U.
- Tom Kolda, Ph.D., Executive Director of University Relations, University of Wisconsin.
- Martin Krepcho, Ph.D. Faculty Associate, UT Southwestern Family Medicine Residency Program Faculty, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.
- John Langevin, Ph.D., Assistant Dean of Students, University of New England.
- Ira Lansing, Ph.D., Mathematics, College of Marin.
- James Leigh, Ph.D. M.A., Assistant Professor Campus Coordinator, Languages Intercollege, Nicosia, Cyprus.
- Lila Lloyd, Ph.D., Instructor, School of Business, North Carolina Agriculture and Technical State University.
- Harvey Loomstein, Ph.D., Health and Human Services/Psychology, City University Los Angeles.
- Marc Lucas, University of New Mexico.
- William Lupton, Ph.D., Chairperson, Department of Computer Science, Morgan State University.
- Jack Dwyer Lynch, Ph.D., has worked in the international education field in The Hague, Holland; London, England; Quito, Ecuador; and most recently Rotterdam, Holland.
- Reed Markham, Ph.D., Higher Education Administration, City University Los Angeles.
- Jim Marler, Ph.D., Adjunct Faculty, Drury University.
- William B. McClaran, Ph.D., Learning Assistance Center, Southern Maine Community College.
- Kathy McCloskey Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Professional Psychology, Wright State University.
- Glen McDaniel, M.S., Assistant Administrator of Clinical Operations, Atlanta, Georgia.
- Michael McGuire, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Psychology, McChord Academic Center, Chapman University.
- Donald R. McNeeley, Ph.D., President and Chief Operating Officer Chicago Tube and Iron Corporation.
- Carole H. Morgan, Ph.D., Instructor Criminal Justice Technology, Chattahoochee Technical College.
- Ruth Mullins Ph.D. Professor of Nursing California State University, Long Beach California.
- Frank T. Murphy, B.B.A., Accounting Professor, Woodbury University.
- Muthena Naseri, Ph.D., Professor, Environmental Science, Moorpark College.
- Joseph J. Nicholas, Ph.D., Biological Sciences/Department Chair, Northland Pioneer College, Navajo County, Arizona.
- Daniel L. Orr II, Ph.D., now an Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon, Las Vegas, Nevada.
- Tulio Otero, Ph.D., Adjunct Professor Columbia College, Puerto Rico and Elgin, Illinois.
- Darrell Page, Ph.D., President, Bladen Community College, Dublin, NC.
- Judy Pellat, Ph.D. Department of Medical Oncology University of Southampton, England.
- Norman Phillips, Ph.D. Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Dayton.
- Erik Podszus Ph.D., Assistant Professor New York City College, New York.
- Gene J. Pollart, Ph.D., Professor, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island.
- Constantine Polychroniou, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, College of Business, University of Cincinnati, Ohio.
- Diane Portfleet, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Education, Hope College. She has a B.A. summa cum laude from Pennsylvania State University and a Ph.D. from C.P.U. in eastern religion. She has won many awards including a Hope College Outstanding Professor.
- Claire Pryor, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, DeVry University.
- Sofia Puerto, Ph.D., Faculty, Loma Linda University School of Nursing.
- Larry Dale Tazan Purnell, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Nursing, University of Delaware, Newark, DE.
- William Redel, Ph.D. Full Professor, International Studies, Sierra Nevada College.
- Louis Roller, Ph.D., Associate Professor and Associate Dean, Monash University. He has a B.S. and M.S. from Melbourne University, a Ph.D. from C.P.U. and has published widely in the professional literature.
- Anton Seidl, Ph.D., Professor of English, Southern Connecticut State University.
- Karl Seifert, Ph.D., Senior Technical Information Systems Analyst, US General Accounting Office, Denver, Colorado.
- Ravi Shankar, Ph.D., Adjunct Professor, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio.
- Yoshiko Shimamoto, Ph.D., Professor of Nursing, University of Honolulu.
- Larry Smith, Ph.D., now Senior Computer Engineer, United States Air force, New Mexico.
- Maureen E. Smith, Ph.D., Lecturer in Psychology, Marymount University.
- Rainer Sommer, Research Associate Professor, George Mason University.
- Melody Thompson, D.Ed., Assistant Professor of Adult Education, Penn State World Campus.
- Richard A. Van Gieson, Ph.D., Professor Economics, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA.
- Norman J. Van Houten, Ph.D., Adjunct Faculty, New Jersey Institute of Technology.
- Jaroslav V. Vaverka, M.S., Applied Engineering and Technology Professor, California University of Pennsylvania.
- Michael Watson, Ph.D., Psychology Professor, Burlington College, Vermont.
- Steven Wehrenberg, Ph.D., Lecture in Organizational Sciences, George Washington University.
- David Young, Ph.D., Professor of Theater, University of Florida.
- Tom Gabril, Ph.D., Professor at Open University.
- Alan Jones, Ph.D., former deputy head teacher at Barnsley (England).
- Paul Zev Hartal, Ph.D., director of the Center for Art, Science and Technology, Montreal, Canada.
- Lewis Ireland Ph.D. professor management a Jones International University has MS from Florida Institute of Management and a Ph.D. from C.P.U.
- Sheila Radford-Hill Ph.D. candidate. adjunct professor University of Illinois-Chicago. She has a AB in American studies from The University of Pennsylvania, a BA from DePaul University and is a Ph.D. candidate from C.P.U. (evidently the closing of C.P.U. prevented her from completing her degree).
This is only a small sample of the over 7,500 C.P.U. graduates, many teaching at state and private colleges and universities. I estimate, based on a Google.com search and other sources, that over a thousand college and university faculty have degrees from C.P.U., often the Ph.D. degree.
Experience of Other Students
Below are several experiences of other CPU students, both positive and negative.
- I attended two traditional universities with a GPA of 3.75 in the sciences, and finished with CPU. I have since obtained a PhD at a traditional university with high GPA, (3.8) and I have an excellent publication record. Characterizing CPU as a degree mill is just false. The work I did at CPU was considerably harder than anything I experienced at any traditional university, and that includes my PhD program. I wrote somewhere around 1,000 pages of papers that were submitted. (Just one I submitted was 250 pages.) I got excellent education, although one of my mentors (PhD – Switzerland) expressed his frustration after a while at the rate of progress. (I was working more than full time.) It took me from 1982 until 1989 to finish two years of credit hours.
That said, I became aware by the time CPU shut down of problems. But most of this I learned directly from CPU’s staff. Quality was variable, particularly after around 1992 when Dr. Crews seemed to pull back. There was not enough oversight on their mentors/professors. Some people had very intense programs like myself, others apparently did not.
I think their major problem was that they paid their mentors in way that didn’t discourage them from refusing to pass students. As anyone who has been inside academia well knows, PhDs/professors tend to do what they are paid to do like anyone else. Some of their mentors took advantage of it I think. Others did not. I think another major problem was that they were founded on a basis of trust by at least one person who is very idealistic, Dr. Crews. Some of that trust got abused and there weren’t systems in place to deal with it.
I gave my recommendations to them once, I think it was around 1995 or so, but I could be wrong. The gist of those recommendations were:
- To pay their mentor-professors a regular wage rather than a project wage. (Minimize part-time staff.)
- To do thorough statistical quality control audits each year of a statistically valid sample of their mentor-professors and students. It wasn’t possible to do complete audits on everyone and no school does. Publish the results of these audits each year. Make management changes based on them.
- To make more use of standardized testing. For instance, I suggested they use the GRE examination for the field of study as a required element of graduating with a bachelor’s degree, setting cutoff values for their students. In 1993 I talked about the possibility of entering a PhD program with CPU. The dean called me back and he told me that his recommendation was that I should go to a traditional program. I questioned him about why, and he told me that he had concerns about where things were going. He didn’t feel it was fair to suggest I do it through CPU. A degree mill would not have done that. (I do not remember his name, nor if he remained with them to the end.) I also came to CPU because of Bear’s guide. Since that time there are many such programs all over the USA. Many have had growing pains. But there is a huge difference between a degree mill and a university that has variable quality. At the time I enrolled, it was one of the only programs of its kind. They were ground breakers. Now we have University of Phoenix and many others.
- While pursuing my course work at C.P.U., I was very impressed with both the quality and the format used by the school. I ended up putting more work into this degree than for those degrees that I completed at large public state universities. This opinion was also shared by those persons that I interviewed. For example, when Dr. David Gardner, now emeritus professor at Boston University, applied to C.P.U. for his second doctorate, he was a tenured faculty at Boston University and would not have completed a second doctorate from C.P.U. if I thought it was a diploma mill. I was on the C.P.U. faculty along with a number of faculty members of other prestigious universities for several years. I chaired several doctoral dissertations during this period. I required the same rigorous scholarship of C.P.U. students as I did of Boston University students (correspondence from Dr. Gardner to Jerry Bergman dated December 6, 2004). He has over 100 scientific publications and 40 books.
- I am a retired lecturer who, prior to having CPU recommended to me by John Bear and also by someone at the O.U. in England, had gained Masters degrees at two highly regarded Universities in England, together with three postgraduate diplomas. I gained my Ph.D. in 1983. I had subsequently learned that CPU was in difficulties some years after I had retired, but am not qualified to comment on these issues. From what is stated, things apparently went wrong. However, at the time I gained my Ph.D. there was no question of any lack of authenticity or validity in this qualification, something that the main article fails to make clear. The innuendos contained generally about this University are a serious disservice to those who gained their degrees prior to 1997. Lumped together, emotive terms such as “diploma mill” and “fraudulent” are most unfair and might be deemed to apply to all degrees awarded. A few years ago I contacted CPU, and asked for some explanation as to what was going on. Again, I am not qualified to comment about recent details, but I was given to understand that the attack on the University was more for political rather than academic ones. From the start I had learned that accreditation was not being sought because the University did not have residential facilities that I understood was a prerequisite for accreditation. Being long since retired I have no personal axe to grind, but I do think that the general thrust of this article on Columbia Pacific University [on Wikipedia] is of a disparaging and derogatory nature and, as I say, most unfair to those who gained degrees prior to 1997. I am sure that things could be put better, and suggest that as it stands it comes over as a bit of a witch-hunt. (Retired correspondent from Argentina August 2007).
- At the time I gained my Ph.D., in the early eighties, the University had a good standing. I was present when several highly regarded people with CPU degrees received their honorary fellowships, which surely was an endorsement. I remember talking to them afterwards. They included Barry Taylor, Chief Education Officer, Anthony Hopkins, the distinguished musicologist, Professor Lewis, at the Open University (who actually recommended me to CPU), and Jill Knight, MP. Memory fades with time, but I am sure that in the early eighties there was an article in the Times Educational Supplement [August 5th, 1983] praising the CPU for its rigor and forward-looking approach.
- I am a graduate of RPI with two engineering degrees, B.Sc. and M.Eng. I attended and completed the doctoral course work at MIT; in fact, I had enough credits for two doctorates from these distinguished universities. I left MIT in order to get a patent on the device I invented–if I had stayed at MIT, the college would have kept the patent rights. Fortunately, I was later able to finish up at Columbia Pacific University and obtain my Ph.D. in 1991. My dissertation mentor and advisor was a distinguished professor at Syracuse University. My dissertation is 459 pages long and contains 800 equations, 30 tables, and 17 figures. I will happily have my dissertation compared to any at MIT, Princeton, or any other university. My experience at CPU was excellent; no corners were cut. It was a fine place for independent scholarly study. Other CPU graduates say exactly the same thing and will proudly show their dissertations.
When completing C.P.U. courses, I soon noticed a “spiritual” side was being advocated in several of the readings and assignments. Of the 40 or so books I read for the degree, one in particular stands out—the Eastern Philosophy intelligent design work by Gary Zukav titled The Dancing Wu Li Masters. Using quantum theory, particle physics, and relativity (the new physics), he argued for intelligent design in the universe. This, of course, raised a red flag, and my perception in 1990 was that, sooner or later, this would get the school into big trouble.
I was soon proven correct—although why C.P.U. had problems is not clear, but teaching of ID is a better-supported reason than all of the others that I have reviewed. Some of the course work also looked at so-called “alternative” or holistic medical treatment approaches (alternatives to standard orthodox medicine), which also raised a red flag. The books in this area included Health: A Holistic Approach by Dennis Chernin, M.D., and Gregory Manteuffel, M.D. This book covered nutrition, yoga, stress therapy, and even homeopathy.
I did not agree with some of these ideas, but felt it did not hurt to be exposed to them. Medical heresy sometimes becomes medical orthodoxy. For example, I had high blood pressure when pursuing these courses. In the past, I had talked to my doctor about various alternative techniques to deal with this problem (specifically nutrition and exercise). At that time, the nutrition-exercise health solution was still seen as quackish (Adele Davis and other nutritional gurus had published in this area, but mainline medicine tended to discredit their work, pointing out that many of those who published in this area were not qualified physicians, although some had undergraduate degrees, or even graduate degrees, in nutrition). Both nutrition and exercise have since moved more into the mainstream and, it turns out, at least this advice was ahead of its time.
It is obvious from much of the criticism of C.P.U. that their advocating ID and alternative approaches to orthodox medicine were a major reason for some of the fierce opposition to the school. Critics of the school spent much time attacking their “alternative” medicine approach. One Web site (http://www.quack-watch.com/04ConsumerEducation/News/C.P.U..html) run by a psychiatrist Stephen Barrett (who, http://www.altC.P.U.alumni.org/wholisticed/hartal2001b.html, claims he lost his medical license) makes it clear that his antagonism to C.P.U. is due to the fact that a few of the over 7,500 C.P.U. graduates have become involved in alternative health activities. If more C.P.U. graduates were involved than the average graduate of other colleges is unknown, but this web site implies that this was the case (this section of this web site is irresponsible; for a rebuttal to Barrett, see http://www.altC.P.U.alumni.org/wholisticed/hartal2001b.html).
Dr. Stephen Barrett of Quackwatch Exposed In Court
At a recent trial, Barrett conceded that he was not a Medical Board Certified psychiatrist because he had failed the certification exam. This was a major revelation since Barrett had provided expert testimony as a psychiatrist in numerous court cases. Barrett also had claimed that he was a legal expert even though he had no formal legal training. The most damning testimony before the jury, under the intense cross-examination, was the fact that Barrett had filed defamation lawsuits against almost 40 people across the country within the past few years and had not won a single case. The following press release summarizes the trial events:
P R E S S R E L E A S E
October 13, 2005 Allentown, Pennsylvania. Stephen Barrett, M.D. vs. Tedd Koren, D.C. and Koren Publications, Inc. Court of Common Pleas of Lehigh County for the State of Pennsylvania. Case No.: 2002-C-1837. LAW OFFICES OF CARLOS F. NEGRETE. San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675.
Quackwatch Founder Stephen Barrett loses Major Defamation trial.
In a stunning development, Lehigh Valley Pennsylvania Judge J. Brian Johnson on Thursday, October 13, 2005, tossed out self-proclaimed ‘consumer medical advocate’ Stephen Barrett’s defamation lawsuit minutes before it was going to be considered by the jury. Barrett operates the web site www.quackwatch.org , www.chirobase.org and 20 other web sites and has been a long time critic of chiropractic calling it “quackery.” In the lawsuit, filed in August 2002 against a nationally known Pennsylvania chiropractor, Stephen Barrett sought unspecified damages against Koren for statements that he wrote in his newsletter in 2001 about Barrett. In his defense, Koren contended that the statements were true and not defamatory and that he had a First Amendment right to write them in his newsletter.
Dr. Koren was represented by well-known attorney Carlos F. Negrete for trial and Washington, D.C. attorney James Turner of Swankin & Turner. Turner and Negrete have been well known for their representation of clients in the health food, supplement and vitamin industries as well as representing nurses, dentists, physicians, chiropractors and complementary therapists. Turner’s experience dates back the 1960s when he joined consumer advocate Ralph Nader and was one of the ground breaking Nader’s Raiders that made consumer advocacy popular and brought about significant changes in manufacturing and consumer protection.
Barrett has touted himself as a medical expert on ‘quackery’ in health care and has assisted in dozens of court cases as an expert. He was the subject of many magazine interviews, including Time Magazine and featured on television interviews on ABC’s 20/20, NBC’s Today Show and PBS. He has gained media fame by his outspoken vocal disgust over natural or non-medical health care, including his criticisms of two time Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling.
Dr. Koren also co-founded a chiropractic college, is on the extension faculty of two chiropractic colleges, has published in chiropractic and biomedical journals and has received numerous awards in his field. In his 2001 newsletter, Koren published articles that revealed that, even though he touted himself as a medical expert, Barrett had not been a licensed physician since the early 1990s. At trial, under a heated cross-examination by Negrete, Barrett conceded that he was not a Medical Board Certified psychiatrist because he had failed the certification exam. This was a major revelation since Barrett had provided supposed expert testimony as a psychiatrist and had testified in numerous court cases. The most damning testimony before the jury, under the intense cross-examination by Negrete, was that Barrett had filed similar defamation lawsuits against almost 40 people across the country within the past few years and had not won one single one at trial. The trial started on Monday, October 10, 2005 and ended on October 13, 2005 Barrett was represented by local Allentown attorney, Richard Orloski.
Much of the attack against C.P.U. is against John Gray, often by radical feminists. Author of the Men are from Mars and Women are from Venus series, a wildly popular 40 million copy run-away best seller series of a dozen books translated into 40 different languages. Some are jealous of his enormous success in the “pop psychology” book market, and attack C.P.U. in order to discredit him. Could the attacks against Gray be due to jealousy? He has been on almost every talk show on the air (he was on Oprah, the queen of talk shows, 16 times). Many people would agree that even a Ph.D. from Harvard would not equal the status of a best-selling author, even if his books were in the area of pop psychology.
I learned later, according to several individuals who looked into the situation, that religion and related concerns evidently were important in revoking Columbia Pacific’s license to operate in California, a fate not dissimilar to what happened to the Institute for Creation Research Graduate School (although ICR appealed their denial, and eventually prevailed in court). Others claimed that the reason the ICR school was closed was because it did not keep up with California requirements, such as meeting refund requirements (if this was true, why did the court give very different reasons for closing C.P.U.?). One fact was clear: C.P.U. graduates are very angry over what happened and, of those I interviewed, none felt the court’s reasons were valid.
Evidence that bias was involved in the C.P.U. license loss is indicated by the fact that, as testified by Dr. Betty Dow, a former employee of the State Council for Private Postsecondary and Vocational Education (CPPVE), the then assistant director of CPPVE, Sheila Hawkins, was determined to close C.P.U. a full two years before the council inspectors had even visited the school for their on site evaluation! (Court of Appeals Case AO 8982; Marvin Superior Court Case No. 172634, pp. 19-20 appellants’ opening brief).
The observations about what happened to C.P.U. correspond with the findings of a recent national study on accreditation, namely that “accreditation is a poor indicator of educational quality” (Neal, 2002; 2003, p. 1) and that accreditors tend to focus their total attention almost entirely on a colleges policies and pay little attention to the quality of the curriculum, instruction, and learning outcomes. They ask, for example, whether the library is large enough, whether the school has a mission statement, whether the student body is diverse enough, whether the financing appears adequate, and so on. Educational quality is presumed as long as the school meets the numerous input standards. It is exceedingly rare for a school to receive any accrediting sanction—much less revocation—on the grounds of poor academic quality. “The accreditation system has received very little scrutiny despite the fact that the accreditors have the power to decide whether a college is good enough to be allowed to receive federal student aid funds,” Leef said. “Congress thought it was utilizing a reliable system for separating academically sound institutions from those that would take the money but offer little educational value. The trouble is that students can now graduate from accredited schools with an education in name only” (Neal, 2003, p. 1).
One report summarized the study as follows:
Lawmakers largely criticized the country’s 50-year-old accreditation process, claiming that it fails to ensure academic quality, lacks accountability and drives up college costs for administrators and students—Chronicle of Higher Education, Oct. 2, 2002 (quoted in Neal, p. 1).
Interestingly, the state agency that attacked C.P.U. was itself shut down about a year later by the governor of California. According to the governor, it was shut down for carrying out a “vendetta” against certain schools. Governor Pete Wilson’s veto of AB 2960 Assembly Bill regarding the then Council for Private Postsecondary Vocational Education is part of his June 9/30/96 letter where he states, in part: “I am concerned about the number of schools, all of whom are still operating, that have described a pattern of reprisals and their only recourse is to take their questions and objections to court. Surely, the Council itself should provide some administrative appeal process short of litigation.” (The complete letter can be read on http//www.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/95-96/bill/asm/ab_2951-3000/ab_2960_vt_960930.html).
The Neal study also found that “accrediting associations have clearly adopted a political agenda” and have tried to force colleges to conform to this agenda. Also available is a document titled The Birth and Death by Execution of California’s CPPVE found at: www.altC.P.U.-alumni.org/chronicles/cppveorigins.html. The Documents regarding the actions of the Council is public and is available in California government archives.
The reasons given for closing down C.P.U. include the claim (denied by C.P.U.) that a degree was awarded without the professor reading the thesis. This was also a problem at two universities where I have taught. It is so common that I have often felt the professors should be quizzed on the content of the thesis they were supposed to have read! The same thing is true of papers written for classes.
Another reason given for closing C.P.U. was that the university “failed to employ duly qualified faculty.” Evidently they lacked Ph.D.’s, but this claim was never qualified or quantified. This was also a problem at several colleges where I have taught. At one college where I once taught, all except one of the six faculty who were hired in one year alone lacked PhDs. Reasons for this include the fact that some small colleges tend to hire “known entities”—mostly part-timers or spouses of current faculty. Most men cannot support a family on part-time teaching, which usually pays around $10,000 a year for the equivalent of full-time work. As a result, their wives often also must teach part-time (often for years) earning poverty wages until they are hired full-time (which, at times, some of them are). A major problem was C.P.U. relied almost totally on part time faculty. If this was a valid concern, the school should have been allowed to remedy this situation. I checked the C.P.U. faculty credentials and determined that most all had PhDs, and most taught at major universities.
The last claim was that C.P.U. “awarded excessive experiential learning to many students.” This is also becoming a problem in some universities (especially at large state universities), often in classes called “readings” or “directed study,” which, as is well known, usually entail far less work than a normal class. For three semester hours, one can fulfill the class requirements by doing a 15-page paper that may require as little as a total of a week’s work in a normal class (or 1/16 the total work), and even less for some independent study classes. Fortunately, some professors have high standards, and this does not happen in their classes. At my college, we have caught students turning in papers printed off the internet (and, no doubt, many others students who did this were not caught). A published student complaint about C.P.U. that is of interest to this concern is as follows:
When Margaret Chester decided to get her doctorate in health and human services in 1996, Columbia Pacific University sounded perfect. Based in San Rafael, Calif., the distance-learning institution offered a self-paced curriculum that would allow Chester to earn her Ph.D. …The beauty of the school was its flexibility. Each student prepared “learning contracts” that defined his or her own path of independent study. …Things went smoothly at first. The 25 or so papers Chester wrote garnered good grades and complimentary comments. But once she began preparing her dissertation, Chester began to worry. She said her faculty adviser rejected three proposals without providing meaningful advice, except to urge her to buy yet another book on how to write a dissertation proposal. …After much soul-searching—Chester had worked hard and already spent $8,600 in tuition alone—she withdrew (Mannix, 2001, p. 68).
It would seem that her major concern was that, after completing the high level of requirements (25 or so papers), she was frustrated with getting her thesis accepted (I had a very similar experience at Wayne State University in Detroit with my Ph.D. thesis. I was not given much help, so consulted friends, including a professional writer, for guidance). The implication of some C.P.U. critics is that their requirements were too minimal, but this student implies that they were too stiff! Mannix continued: “The judge who ruled to yank the school’s approval cited such flaws as the failure to develop course objectives.” This, if true, seems easy to fix (all my C.P.U. courses had clear objectives, so I doubt if this was true). The article concludes that degrees granted before 1997 “are valid in the state’s view” (Mannix, 2001, p. 68).
If any of these concerns were valid, C.P.U. should have been given time to remedy them as is the rule in others schools. At all of the colleges where I have taught, numerous shortcomings were noted by the on-site visit team. The agency did not close the school or deny accreditation; rather, we were allowed to work on remedying the perceived shortcomings. Interestingly, nothing was said in the state report about the quality of instruction or the satisfaction of the students with the program—a concern that conforms with the report on accreditation cited above! Mannix concluded that for
most of the time she was enrolled, Chester had no clue that her school’s status was in jeopardy. Indeed, some graduates of the school, which had been awarding degrees for two decades, have been stunned and angered to learn that the quality of their alma mater was in question. “We found the academic rigor to be extremely stringent,” says a clinical analyst at a major California health system who earned a Ph.D. in 1999. The school’s attorney, Orrin Grover, says he hopes to file a lawsuit to overturn the decision. “I don’t want to criticize the Court of Appeals, but they are just wrong” (2001, p. 70).
Nonetheless, regardless of where this lawsuit leads, my C.P.U. degree is fully legal. A state education memo dated May 23, 2000, said that
Students Who Received Degrees From C.P.U. Before June 25, 1997: Your degree, and any certificate or license you received by virtue of the degree, should not be affected. C.P.U. had legal approval up to June 25, 1997, and the degrees it issued on or before June 25, 1997 are legal (http://www.bppve.ca.gov/press_releases/C.P.U.web.htm).
A Forerunner of Distance Learning
Columbia Pacific now has proven to be a forerunner of a major modern educational movement called distance learning. Thousands of colleges now offer distance-learning classes on the Internet (schools that use regular mail are referred to by the derogatory term “correspondence schools,” while the use of electronic mail is now accepted as “distance learning”). Some graduate schools now offer M.B.A.’s or other graduate degrees that require only one night a week in class for a mere 18 months! In comparison, my masters degree from a medical school each required over three years, often necessitating three days a week in the lab, and as much time in class and in the library! Even some of America’s leading universities now offer “on-line” degrees, including Johns Hopkins University, which has an on-line M.P.H. (their “in class” M.P.H. is considered the best in the business).
C.P.U. Slandered in the Media
The result of the unjustified attacks against C.P.U. include:
Some C.P.U. grads are not using their degrees, as Roger mentions. Many are still teaching in accredited schools (C.P.U. was respected during the 1980s and early 1990s, and there continued to be a wave of tolerance for alternative approaches). One guy I know is finishing his Canadian Ph.D. and no longer mentions C.P.U. on his resume. He says he did just as much work for his C.P.U. Ph.D. as the Canadian Ph.D. (http://www.degreeinfo.com/static/forum_archive/5/5320/thread_page_1.html).
This is a result of the fact that C.P.U. has been repeatedly irresponsibly slandered by the media. An example is the following letter dated October 3, 2005, that I wrote in response to a set of irresponsible charges in an article by Christina Couch titled “Scholarly Shams and Scams.”
This article is the most inaccurate article I have ever read, ever. A few examples. I have a C.P.U. degree and it cost me almost 4,000 dollars in 1990, 15 years ago. This is a far cry from 1,600.00 dollars in 1999 that Couch claims. I also find the statement that C.P.U. “was the only school to offer PhDs in 27 days or less” irresponsible. It took me almost 2 years to complete my degree and I put more work for this degree than my Ph.D. from Wayne State University in Detroit, a major research institution. I still have copies of the work I completed. I belong to a C.P.U. alumni group and everyone in the group has had an experience similar to mine. As far as we have been able to determine, the main problem was the curriculum was not mainline, and I believe this is why C.P.U. was shut down. I would appreciate it if you could send documentation to support the claims in your article. I plan to quote your article as evidence of the irresponsible slander now heaped on C.P.U. If you do not answer this letter (my experience) I will quote this letter in my article about C.P.U. I am an adjunct associate professor at a major state Medical University and a professor at a state college. If you are concerned about online education, you should at least try to determine why C.P.U. was closed. I have, and have not been able to pin down a valid reason, even though I have a file cabinet full of documents on the case including court transcripts.
The letter was never answered. Several of the charges against C.P.U. have turned out to be bogus. An example, the claim that C.P.U. awarded a Ph.D. 27 days after the student enrolled was not C.P.U. but Columbia State, a degree mill that advertised their students could earn a degree in 27 days. Another charge was that two faculty were unqualified. The “unqualified” C.P.U. faculty turned out to be two African Deans who the committee claimed graduated from unaccredited schools. In fact, they earned their degrees from the University of Wales and the University of Bremen, both respected and fully accredited European Universities.
Another allegation is that a dissertation written in Spanish was approved by a C.P.U. faculty who was not fluent in Spanish. In fact, the faculty used translators to work on the dissertation, and the summary, table of contents, and other sections were in English. After this event, C.P.U. would no longer accept dissertations in languages other than English. This new policy then raised charges of discrimination by the Hispanic community.
One reason why the administrative judge uncritically accepted the erroneous report that contained irresponsible charges, such as the above, was because C.P.U. was unable to be represented in court by an attorney, nor did they have sufficient time and resources to prepare a proper defense. One reason for this fact is on the day before the trial C.P.U. was forced to file for bankruptcy. C.P.U. alumni are now completing an extensive study comparing the work of C.P.U. graduates with that of graduates from other schools. One survey of those who passed the California Psychology Licensing Board examination found that the rate for C.P.U. graduates was average. A larger study needs to be done to determine the accuracy of this finding.
One charge against C.P.U. was valid. The University relied almost totally on part time faculty. Even though most of them had Ph.D.s, nonetheless it is very difficult to monitor the quality of work done by part-timers. Some were very responsible and conscientious, others were clearly derelict in their duties. The same problem, though, is true of many distance learning colleges and community colleges that rely heavily on part-time faculty. In my judgment C.P.U. was average in this category, which is to say they could have done better, as could most distance learning schools and community colleges.
After my extensive research on C.P.U., I was unable to determine a valid reason for C.P.U.’s closure. It is clear that C.P.U. was unable to properly defend itself, and the judge simply rubber stamped the state of California’s report. I am left with the reason that I originally proposed, discrimination due to including readings about ID and alternative medicine. In 2005 the former Dean of C.P.U. Les Carr wrote the following:
I will always be proud of the C.P.U. dedicated staff, its mission, and most significantly the many thousands of graduates who have gone on to distinguish themselves in a broad range of fields and professions. There is absolutely no question in my mind that C.P.U. experienced a gross injustice. As the Chief Academic Officer of C.P.U., I had the unpleasant experience of being confronted unfairly by a CA state evaluation team that had been briefed by lower-level CA bureaucrats to fail C.P.U., no matter what team members found. Unlike the many other evaluation teams over 20 years that reported highly positive findings and took several days on site to conduct their objective evaluations of C.P.U., this so-called evaluation team remained at C.P.U. for no more than a day and a half and did not engage in the usual exit visit with key staff. The extreme bias and “absurdity” of this bogus team was flagrantly displayed in their comments regarding Dr. Crews, the C.P.U. President. The team stated that Dr. Crews (M.D. from Harvard) was not academically qualified to be President since he had an M.D. degree, rather than a Ph.D degree. It is to be noted that one of the most famous and successful college Presidents was the long-time President of Antioch College, Dr. Dixon, who had an M.D. degree. Dr. Crews, assisted by dedicated staff, put in many years of hard work that resulted in C.P.U. being the early innovative leader that lighted the way for the emergence of distance education-bachelors, masters, doctoral degree programs. Yes, C.P.U. got a bum rap and the C.P.U. graduates need to mobilize their efforts and energies, and join together to resurrect C.P.U.—and right the wrong that has been done to thousands of C.P.U. grads who earned their degrees and did the required work. C.P.U. is a “cold case” that is deserving of being reopened with justice done-this time and finally.
One fact is clear. As a whole, C.P.U. alumni have done extremely well, as my list of professors and professional persons above documents. With more digging I could have easily have compiled a much longer list, but felt that this would add little to prove my point beyond the list that I compiled by searching C.P.U. on Google. The C.P.U. approach has been openly copied by hundreds of schools, rarely with acknowledgement. One exception is the Catholic European American University that has openly acknowledged C.P.U. as their educational model. They operate a university press, a unique musical library, and an educational research center.
Another fact is clear: the system of higher education in the United States, and especially California, is now undergoing major turmoil (Leef and Burris, 2003). It also appears that government corruption was involved in the C.P.U. case and that this situation should be investigated by the proper authorities.
A third fact is C.P.U. was a major innovator that has resulted in one of the most revolutionary innovations in education in over a century called distance learning. It is now difficult to find a college or university that does not offer distance learning programs, and more and more colleges are converting their courses to distance learning.
Bear, John. 1998. Bear’s Guide to Non-Traditional College Degrees. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press. Also 1985 edition and 1981 edition published by Bear’s Guides, Mendocino, CA.
Bergman, Jerry. 1992. A History and Evaluation of Noninvasive Medical Diagnostic Treatment and Research Techniques.” Ann Arbor, University Microfilms, 498 pp.
Boston, René Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Director of Public Affairs WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, Ohio, March 30, 2006
Carr, Les. 2005. “Former Chief Academic Officer and Founder of C.P.U. Breaks His Silence.” http://blog.altcualumni.org/?page_id=20.
Ezell, Allen and John Bear. 2005. Degree Mills: The Billion Dollar Industry that has sold Over a Million Fake Diplomas. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books.
Leef, George C. and Roxana D. Burris. 2003 Can College Accreditation Live Up to Its Promise? Washington, DC: American Council of Trustees and Alumni.
Mannix, Margaret. 2001. “Buyers Be Wary.” U.S. News and World Report, October 15, p. 68.
Neal, Anne. 2002. Can College Accreditation Live Up to Its Promise? Washington, DC: American Council of Trustees and Alumni.
______. 2003. “ACTA Puts Accreditation Under the Microscope.” Inside Academia, 8(2):1,3,6.
The Times Educational Supplement. “C.P.U. Where Experience Counts a Lot” August 5, 1983. pp. 8-9.
E-mail from David M. Given to Mr. Sheridan. Dated March 9, 2004.
Letter from Lynnelle Case to Dr. Gerald Bergman. Dated March 13, 2003.