Living Fossils

Living Fossils (Documented by Mark Stewart)
1. Diplopanax – Creation Ex Nihilo 12(4): 6,7 (Sept – Nov 1990)
2. Tuatara – Biblical Basis for Modern Science by Henry Morris (Baker Book House, Grand
Rapids, Michigan, 1984) pg.355; Scientific Creationism Edited by Henry Morris (Master
Books: El Cajon, CA, 1974) pg.89; The Genesis Flood by John Whitcomb & Henry Morris
(Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing: Philipsburg, NJ, 1961) pgs.176, 177; The
Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976)
pg.287, 289; “The Tuatara: Why is it a lone survivor?” by C. M. Bogert, Scientific Monthly,
76 (1953): 165; Sphenodon – Gliedman “Miracle Mutations”, Science Digest (Feb, 1982)
pgs.90, 92; A Case for Creation by Wayne Frair & Percival Davis (Moody Press, 1967)
pg.65
3. Latimeria chalumnae (Coelacanth) – Also mentioned in Creation Ex Nihilo 15(4): 45 (Sept –
Nov, 1993); Creation 23(2): 5 (March – May, 2001); Forey, “The Coelacanth as a Living
Fossil” in Living Fossils, N. Eldredge & S. Stanley, eds, 1984) pg.166; A Case
for Creation by Wayne Frair & Percival Davis (Moody Press, 1967) pg.65; Genes,
Genesis & Evolution by John W. Klotz (Concordia Publishing House: St. Louis, Missouri,
1955) pgs.200-202; Darwin Retried: an appeal to reason by Norman Macbeth (Harvard
Common Press: Boston, Massachusetts, 1971) pg.121; Biology: A Search for Order in
Complexity, Edited by John N. Moore & Harold Slusher (Zondervan Publishing House:
Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1970) pg.264; The Biblical Basis for Modern Science by Henry
M. Morris (Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1984) pg.355; Scientific
Creationism Edited by Henry Morris (Master Books: El Cajon, CA, 1974) pg.89; The
Genesis Flood by John Whitcomb & Henry Morris (Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing:
Philipsburg, NJ, 1961) pgs.177,178; After Its Kind by Byron C. Nelson (Augsburg
Publishing House: Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1927) pg.55, 56; Life (April 3, 1939) pg.26;
The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan,
1976) pg.288, 292; Creation: Facts of Life by Gary Parker (Master Books: Colorado
Springs, Colorado, 1994) pgs.189, 190
4. Sea Lillies (echinoderm) – Living crinoids (feather stars); Found along Australia’s Barrier Reef;
Mississippian system (Lower Carboniferous); Fossils also found in Indiana, Iowa &
Nebraska; Also mentioned in The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L. Wysong
(Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg.288, 293; Creation: Facts of Life by Gary
Parker (Master Books: Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1994) pgs.188, 189
5. Starfish – Also mentioned in After His Kind by Byron C. Nelson (Augsburg Publishing House:
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1927) pg.59; The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L.
Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg.287, 290; the modern Green
Brittle Star compares to Palleocoma egertoni fossil found in a Jurassic rock layer located
in England (See: “Living fossils: Portraits of the fossilized past” by Mike Matthews in
Answers 6(1): 62 (January – March 2011).
6. Lobsters
7. Nautilus – (Squid-like cephalopod mollusks – nautiloids; Lower Cambrian) Also mentioned in
Sturmer, “A small coleoid cephalopod with soft parts from the lower Devonian discovered
using radiography”, 318 Nature (1985) pgs53, 55; Ward, “Is Nautilus a Living Fossil?” in
Living Fossils, N. Eldredge & S. Stanley, eds, 1984) pg.247; The Creation-Evolution
Controversy by R.L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg.288; Creation:
Facts of Life by Gary Parker (Master Books: Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1994) pg.189
8. Cockroaches – Also mentioned in Kuisinitz, Cockroach: The Ancient Super-Pest, Science
World (Feb 4, 1983) pg.12; The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L. Wysong (Inquiry
Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg. 287, 290; “Insects in Amber” by C. T. Brues,
Scientific American, 185 (1951) pg.57
9. Dragonflies – Also mentioned in Evolution from Space by F. Hoyle & N. Wickramasinghe (1981)
pg.86, 89; The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R. L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland,
Michigan, 1976) pg.287; “The Dragonfly: Fossil on Wings” Science Digest, 49 (1961)
pg.6; Anax junius (Green Darner) – living, compares to the Petalura found in a middle
Jurassic rock layer located in Germany (See: “Living fossils: Portraits of the fossilized
past” by Mike Matthews in Answers 6(1): 59 (January – March 2011)
10. Ginkgo tree (maidenhair tree) – Also mentioned in Genes, Genesis & Evolution by John Klotz
(Concordia Publishing House: St. Louis, Missouri, 1955) pg.200; Darwin Retried: an
appeal to reason by Norman Macbeth (Harvard Common Press; Boston,
Massachusetts, 1971) pg.121; After Its Kind by Byron C. Nelson (Augsburg Publishing
House: Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1927) pg.58; The Creation-Evolution Controversy by
R.L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg.288, 291; Morphology and the
Evolution of Fossil Plants by T. Delevoryas (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1962)
pg.134
11. Sequoia – Metasequoia glyptostroboides trees mentioned in A Case for Creation by Wayne
Frair & Percival Davis (Moody Press, 1967) pg.65; Genes, Genesis and Evolution by
John W. Klotz (Concordia Publishing House: Saint Louis, Missouri, 1955) pg. 200;
Scientific Creationism Edited by Henry Morris (Master Books: El Cajon, CA, 1974) pg.89;
The Genesis Flood by John Whitcomb and Henry Morris (Presbyterian & Reformed
Publishing: Philipsburg, NJ, 1961) pg.179, 180; The Creation-Evolution Controversy by
R.L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg.287,291; “Metasequoia
Discovery” by R. Chaney, American Scientist, 36 (1948) pg.490
12. Peripatus (Wasp) found in an Oligocene rock layer located in the U.S. compares to the living
wasp Philanthus multimaculatus (See: “Living fossils: Portraits of the fossilized past” by
Mike Matthews in Answers 6(1): 60 (January – March 2011)
13. Lingula (Crabs) – 2~13 mentioned in Creation Ex Nihilo 15(2) Our World (March – May, 1993);
J. Beerbower, Search for the Past 168 (1960); A Case for Creation by Wayne Frair &
Percival Davis (Moody Press, 1967) pg.65; Darwin Retried: An appeal to reason by
Norman Macbeth (Harvard Common Press, Boston, Massachusetts, 1971) pg.121;
Scientific Creationism Edited by Henry Morris (Master Books: El Cajon, CA, 1974) pg.89;
Creation: Facts of Life by Gary Parker (Master Books: Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1994)
pg.189; Modern day crabs compare to Harpactocarcinus punetulatus fossil found in an
Eocene rock layer located in Italy (See: “Living fossils: Portraits of the fossilized past” by
Mike Matthews in Answers 6(1): 61 (January – March 2011).
14. Robinia and Baetidae (mayflies) Creation Ex Nihilo 15(3): 51 (June – August, 1993); Evolution
From Space, pg.86, 89
15. Syncarid – Creation Ex Nihilo 15(4): 23 (September – November 1993)
16. Liquiddambar – Creation Ex Nihilo 15(4): 45 (Sept – Nov 1993)
17. Comptonia and Limulus (horseshoe crabs) Xiphosurans Creation Ex Nihilo 16(1): 6 (Dec –
Feb, 1994); Gliedman, “Miracle Mutations” Science Digest (Feb, 1982) pg.90, 92; A Case
for Creation by Wayne Frair & Percival Davis (Moody Press, 1967) pg.65; Galatheid
crabs & horseshoe crabs in Of Pandas and People by Percival Davis & Dean Kenyon;
Academic Editor Charles Thaxton (Haughton Publishing Co.: Dallas, Texas, 1989) pg.99;
“Living fossils” Creation 26(4): 24,25 (September – November, 2004)
18. Penaeus and Antrimpos (shrimp) Creation Ex Nihilo 16(2): 6 (March – May, 1994)
19. Mapinguari – Creation Ex Nihilo 16(3): 9 (June – August, 1994)
20 Triops cancriformis (tadpole shrimp); Lepidurus apus, Triops – Creation 16(3): 51 (June –
August, 1994); Also Creation 16(4): 50,51 (Sept – Nov, 1994); Creation 23(3): 15 (June –
Aug, 2001)
21. Polistes (Wasp) – Creation 17(1): 28 (Dec 1994 – Feb 1995)
22. Wollemia nobilis (Wollemi pine tree) – Creation 17(2): 13 (March – May, 1995); Creation 23(1):
6 (Dec 2000 – Feb, 2001); Creation 23(3): 56 (June – Aug, 2001); Creation 27(4): 8
(September – November 2005) Impact #394 (April 2006) “Wollemi Pine’-Old pollen
records for a newly discovered genus of gymnosperm” Geology Today 11(2): 48-50
(1995) by M Macphail, K Hill, A Partridge, E Truswell, and C Foster; “Wollemi Pine”
Nature Australia 25(2): 22 (1995) by K McGhee; The Wollemi Pine: The Incredible
Discovery of a Living Fossil from the Age of Dinosaurs, 2nd edition (Text Publishing
Company: Melbourne, Australia, 2002) by J Woodford
23. Pleurotomaria – Creation 17(2): 52 (March – May 1995)
24. Crinoid Anthedon – Creation 17(3): 52 (June – Aug 1995)
25. Busycon contrarium – Creation 17(4): 6 (Sept – Nov, 1995)
26. Northomyrmecia macrops (dinosaur ants) – Creation 17(4): 7 (Sept – Nov, 1995); Many ants,
J. Beerbower, Search for the Past 168 (1960); A Case for Creation by Wayne Frair &
Percival Davis (Moody Press, 1967) pg.65
27. Bathynomus (Sea lice) – Creation 18(2): 7 (March – May, 1996)
28. Budgerigar (budgies) – Creation 18(3): 8 (June – Aug, 1996)
29. Acer monspessulanum (maple leaf) – Creation 18(3): 41 (June – Aug, 1996)
30. Lavarackorum elseya (turtle) – Creation 18(4): 7 (Sept – Nov, 1996)
31. Anadara (bivalve) – Creation 19(3): 52 (June – Aug, 1997)
32. Exocoetoides minor (flying fish) – Creation 20(1): 56 (Dec 1997 – Feb, 1998)
33. Bohartilla and Stichotreme – Creation 20(3): 55 (June – Aug, 1998)
34. Allaeochelys crassesculptata and Carettochelys insculpta (Fossil & Living Turtle) – Creation
21(2): 29 (March – May, 1999); Snapping Turtle mentioned in Of Pandas and People by
Percival Davis & Dean Kenyon; Academic Editor Charles Thaxton (Haughton Publishing
Co.: Dallas, Texas, 1989) pg.99
35. Rhamphorhynchoid Pterosaur Scaphognathus Crassirostris – Proc 4th Int’l Conf Creation
(1998) pg.253-269
36. Koelreuteria (leaf) – Creation 21(4): 33 (Sept – Nov, 1999)
37. Nightcap Oak (Australian tree) – Creation 23(2): 6 (March – May 2001)
38. Prawn (genus Penacus) – Creation 23(3): 15 (June – Aug, 2001)
39. Raptophasma Kerneggeri (Gladiator insect) assigned to new order Mantophasmatodea –
Creation 25(2): 51,52 (March – May 2003)
40. Bacillus circulans – (bacteria) – 108 Annals N.Y. Acad. Science 453 (1963); Guiness Book of
World Records by N. & R. McWhirter (New York: Sterling, 1973) pg.97; The
Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976)
pg.287
41. E. elfriedae (squid) – Sturmer, “A small coleoid cephalopod with soft parts from the lower
Devonian discovered using radiography”, 318 Nature pg.53, 55 (1985)
42. Cephalocarids (mollusk) – Hessler, “Cephalocarida: Living Fossil Without a Fossil Record, in
Living Fossils, N. Eldredge & S. Stanley, eds, 1984) pg.181
43. Neopilinia, Neomphalus, Neritopsis – Batten in id, Living Fossil Molluscs, pg.218; A Case for
Creation by Wayne Frair & Percival Davis (Moody Press, 1967) pg.65; Scientific
Creationism Edited by Henry Morris (Master Books, El Cajon, CA, 1974) pg. 89; The
Genesis Flood by John Whitcomb & Henry Morris (Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing:
Philipsburg, NJ, 1961) pg.178; “New Missing Link Discovered” Science by Bentley Glass,
Vol.126, pg.158 (July 26, 1957); The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L. Wysong
(Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg.287, 289; Guiness Book of
World Records, Edited by N. & R. McWhirter (New York: Sterling, 1973)
pg.89
44. Campanile symbolicum (snail) – Houbrick in id, The Giant Creeper…Marine Snail, pg.232
45. Distoma melanioides – Houbrick in id, Snail from South Australia, pg.236
46. Nellia tenella (bryozoan) – Winston & Cheetham, “The Bryozoan Nellia tenella as a Living
Fossil, in id.at 257
47. Heliopora (coelenterate coral) – Colgan, “The Cretaceous Coral Heliopora…” in id. at 266
48. Bowfin (fishes) – S. Stanley, The New Evolutionary Timetable 83-84 (1981); Of Pandas &
People by Percival Davis & Dean Kenyon; Academic Editor Charles Thaxton (Haughton
Publishing Co.: Dallas, Texas, 1989) pg.99
49. Lepisosteidae (Gars) – Wiley & Schultze, “Family Lepisosteidae (Gars) as Living Fossils” in
Living Fossils at 160, 163 N. Eldredge & S. Stanley eds (1984)
50. Lungfishes – S. Stanley, The New Evolutionary Timetable 84 (1981); Darwin Retried: an
appeal to reason by Norman Macbeth (Harvard Common Press: Boston Massachusetts,
1971) pg.121
51. Chanidae (teleostean fish) – Patterson “Family Chanidae and Other Teleostean Fishes as
Living Fossils” in Living Fossils at 132 (N. Eldredge & S. Stanley eds. 1984)
52. Denticeps clupeoides – Greenwood “Denticeps clupeoides Clausen… in id.at 140
53. Polypterus and Erpetoichthys (osteichthyans) – Greenwood “Polypterus and Erpetoichthys:
Anachronistic Osteichthyans, in id.at 143
54. Sturgeons – Gardiner “Sturgeons as Living Fossils” in id.at 148
55. Amia (neopterygian) – Schultze & Wiley “The Neopterygian Amia as a Living Fossil” in id. at
153
56. Bat – Mayr, “Discussion” in Mathematical Challenges to the Neo-Darwinian Interpretation of
Evolution 54,58 (P. Moorhead & M. Kaplan eds 1967); Jepsen “Early Eocene Bat from
Wyoming” 154 Science 1333 (1966); E. Russell, The Diversity of Animals 123 (1962);
The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan,
1976) pg.287, 288
57. Protosciurus (flying squirrel) – Emry & Thorington “The Tree Squirrel Sciurus…as a Living
Fossil” in Living Fossils 23,30 (N. Eldredge & S. Stanley eds. 1984)
58. Tapiridae and Tragulidae (Tragulids) – Janis “Tragulids as Living Fossils” in id.at 87,93
59. Rhynchochyon (Elephant shrews) – Novacek “Evolutionary Stasis in the Elephant-Shrew,
Rhynchochyon” in id.at 4
60. Tupaia (Tree shrews) – Tattersall “The Tree-Shrew, Tupaia: A ‘Living Fossil Model’ of the
Ancestral Primate?” in id.at 32
61. Tarsiers – Schwartz “What Is a Tarsier?” in id.at 38
62. Bovidae (Bovids) – Vrba “Evolutionary Pattern and Process in the Sister-Group
Alcelaphini-Aepycerotini (Mammalia: Bovidae), in id. pg. 62
63. Tapirs – Janis “Tapirs as Living Fossils” in id. pg.80
64. Opossums – Also mentioned in A Case for Creation by Wayne Frair & Percival Davis (Moody
Press, 1967) pg.65; Darwin Retried: an appeal to reason by Norman Macbeth (Harvard
Common Press: Boston, Massachusetts, 1971) pg.121
65. Pangolins
66. New world porcupines – Also mentioned in Of Pandas and People by Percival Davis & Dean
Kenyon; Academic Editor, Charles Thaxton (Haughton Publishing Co.: Dallas, Texas,
1989) pg.99
67. Aardvarks – 65 ~ 68: W.R. Bird The Origin of Species Revisited (Philosophical Library: New
York, NY, 1987) pg.68; Of Pandas and People by Percival Davis & Dean Kenyon,
Charles B. Thaxton, Academic Editor (Haughton Publishing co., Dallas, Texas, 1989)
pg.99
68. Platypus – Darwin Retried: an appeal to reason by Norman Macbeth (Harvard Common
Press: Boston, Massachusetts, 1971) pg.121
69. Oyster – Darwin Retried: an appeal to reason by Norman Macbeth (Harvard Common Press:
Boston, Massachusetts, 1971) pg. 121
70. Lepidocaris (crustacean) – “Ecology, Paleontology, and Stratigraphy” by Harry S. Ladd,
Science, Vol.129 (Jan 9, 1959) pg. 74; The Genesis Flood by John Whitcomb & Henry
Morris (Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing: Philipsburg, NJ, 1961) pg.178;
Notostracan (crustaceans) in Of Pandas and People by Percival Davis & Dean Kenyon;
Academic Editor Charles Thaxton (Haughton Publishing Co.: Dallas, Texas, 1989) pg.99
71. Hickory (leaf) – After Its Kind by Byron C. Nelson (Augsburg Publishing House: Minneapolis,
Minnesota, 1927) pg.52
72. Japanese Oak (leaf) – After Its Kind by Byron Nelson (Augsburg Publishing House:
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1927) pg.53
73. Walnut (leaf) – After Its Kind by Byron Nelson (Augsburg Publishing House: Minneapolis,
Minnesota, 1927) pg.54
74. Grape (leaf) – After Its Kind by Byron Nelson (Augsburg Publishing House: Minneapolis,
Minnesota, 1927) pg.55
75. Magnolia (leaf) – After Its Kind by Byron Nelson (Augsburg Publishing House: Minneapolis,
Minnesota, 1927) pg.57
76. Spider – The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland,
Michigan, 1976) pg.290
77. Myriopod (centipede-millipede) – The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L Wysong (Inquiry
Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg.290
78. Cycad (tree) – Essentials of Earth History by W.L. Stokes (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1960)
pg.266; The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland,
Michigan, 1976) pg. 288,292
79. Switch-pine – Believed to be 250 million years old – The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.
L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg. 288
80. Turnip-pine – Believed to be 250 million years old – The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.
L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg. 288
81. Club-mosses – Believed to be 400 million years old – The Creation-Evolution Controvery by
R. L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg. 288
82. Horsetails – “Living fossil horsetail reeds for gardens” www.moplants.com (April 6, 2011) and
“Horsetails are ‘living fossils’” Creation 33(3): 23 (July – Sept 2011) by David Catchpoole;
Thought to be 145 million years old (Jurassic Period); Once thought to be 400 million
years old. See also: The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R. L. Wising (Inquiry
Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg. 288
83. Ferns – Believed to be 400 million years old – The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R. L.
Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg. 288
84. Liverworts – Believed to be 400 million years old – The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.
L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg. 288
85. Mosses – Believed to 400 million years old – The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R. L.
Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg. 288
86. Hornworts – 80~87 in The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L. Wysong (Inquiry Press:
Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg.288 Believed to be 400 million years old.
87. Apus (crustacean) – The International Wildlife Encyclopedia, Eds. M. & R. Burton (New York:
Marshall Cavendish, 1969) pg.75; The Creation- Evolution Controversy by R.L Wysong
(Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg.288
88. Heterodontus Japonicus (Port Jackson Shark) The Port Jackson Shark, Heterodontus
Japonicus is believed to have remain unchanged for “181 million years” according to
evolutionists.
89. Cow Shark – Has been traced back “166 million years” – The Creation-Evolution Controversy
by R. L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg. 293
90. Cat Shark – 89~91 in The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L. Wysong (Inquiry Press:
Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg. 288 – 293 The cat shark has been traced back “136 million
Years”.
91. Sea Urchin – The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland,
Michigan, 1976) pg.288; Echinoneid Sea Urchin in Of Pandas and People by Percival
Davis & Dean Kenyon; Academic Editor Charles Thaxton (Haughton Publishing Co.:
Dallas, Texas, 1989) pg.99
92. Spirula (squid) – The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland,
Michigan, 1976) pg.288, 294
93. Vampyroteuthis (squid-octopus) – The Nightmare World of the Shark by J. Cook & W. Wisner
(New York: Dodd, 1968) pg.12; Abyss – The Deep Sea and the Creatures That Live in it,
by C. Idyll (New York: Crowell, 1971) pgs.232-253; The Creation-Evolution Controversy
by R.L. Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg.288, 294
94. Alligators – Of Pandas and People by Percival Davis & Dean Kenyon; Academic Editor
Charles Thaxton (Haughton Publishing Co.: Dallas, Texas, 1989) pg.99
95. Sirens (amphibians) – Of Pandas and People by Percival Davis & Dean Kenyon; Academic
Editor Charles Thaxton (Haughton Publishing Co.: Dallas, Texas, 1989) pg.99
96. Kakabekia (protozoan) – Of Pandas and People by Percival Davis & Dean Kenyon, Academic
Editor Charles Thaxton (Haughton Publishing Co.: Dallas, Texas, 1989) pg.99
97. Salamanders – of the Cryptobranchidae family – Creation 26(2): 26,27 (March – May, 2004)
by David Catchpoole
98. Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis – (frog) – Creation 26(3): 8 (June – August 2004) anon.;
Nature (October 16, 2003) pp.669-670, 711-714; New Scientist (October 18, 2003) p.19
99. Diplopanax stachyanthus – woody mastixioid fruit – “Fossil Mastixioid (Cornaceae) alive in
eastern Asia” American Journal of Botany 77: 689-92 (1990) by Richard H. Eyde and
Xiang Qiuyun; “Problems in the interpretation of variation within the fossil record”
Creation Research Society Quarterly 28(2): 52,53 (September, 1991) by Trevor J. Major
100. Butterflies – “Fluttering among the dinos” Creation 26(4): 8 (September – November 2004);
New Scientist, 27 (March 2004) p.17
101. Rhyniognatha hirsti – “’Evolutionary origins’ continue to be pushed back in time” TJ 18(3): 7
(2004) by Michael J. Oard; “New light shed on the oldest insect” Nature 427: 627-630
(2004) by MS Engel and DA Grimaldi
102. Diatomyidae (Laotian rock rat) rat-squirrel (rodent) – thought to be extinct for 11 million
years; Science (March 10, 2006) co-authored by Mary Dawson (Paleontologist,
Pittsburgh, Carnegie Museum of Natural History)
103. Neoglyphea inopinata – lobster/shrimp-like crustacean; mentioned in “Living fossil’ found in
Coral Sea” source: http://msnbc.msn.com/id/12875772/; found in the southwest entrance
to Manila Bay, Philippinnes, 1908
104. Neoglyphea neocaledonica – mud lobster/shrimp-like creature; “Living fossil’ found in Coral
Sea” http://msnbc.msn.com/id/12875772/ ; found in the Chesterfield islands, northwest of
New Caledonia, Coral Sea; thought to have been extinct for 60 million years;
(crustacean) found in the Coral Sea between Caledonia & Australia;
www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12875772 (May 26, 2006);
http://www.msnbc.msn.com:80/id/12875772/ (May 19, 2006)
105. Laonastes aenigmamus – Laotian rock rat; Southeast Asia; Systematics & Biodiversity (April
2005) Believed to have been extinct for 11 million years. A rodent in the mammalian
group of diatonyids – Answers 1(1): 8, 9 (July – September 2006); “Kebab meat rodent
gives birth to new family” New Scientist 186(2500): 18 (2005) by J. Pickrell; “Rodent
resurrection” Science 311(5766): 1341 (2006) by S. Hurtley & P. Szuromi; “Laonastes
and the “Lazarus effect” in recent mammals” Science 311(5766): 1456-1458 (2006)
106. Neoglyphea neocaledonica 107. Gracilidris (ant) found in the Dominican Republic on
Hispaniola Island; believed to have been 15-20 million years; “Ants of the Dominican
Amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). 3 The subfamily Dolichoderinae” Psyche 92(1): 17-37
(1985) by E.O. Wilson; “Rediscovery of a fossil dolichoderine ant lineage (Hymenoptera:
Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) and a description of a new genus from South America”
Zootaxa 1142: 57-68 (2006) by A.L. Wild and F. Cuezzo
107. Priscomyzon riniensis (lamprey) believed to 360 million years old; Nature 443(7114):
921-984 (October 26, 2006); Creation 29(2): 10 (March – May 2007)
108. Troglodytic – Congeria Kusceri (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) (Bivalve mollusk) from a genus
thought to be extinct since the Miocene. The genus Congeria was believed to be extinct
five million years ago. Discovered in the Dinaric karst of the former Yugoslavia (Slovenia,
Croatia & Bosnia – Herzegovina); “Genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of the
troglodytic “living fossil” Congeria Kusceri (Bivalvia: Drissenidae)” Molecular Ecology 10:
1873a, 1879 (2001) by CA Stepein, B Morton, KA Dabrowska, RA Guarnrco, T Radja,
and B Radja; Also found in the Journal of Zoology (J Zool.) 245(2): 147-174 (June 1998)
by B Morton, F Velkoverh and B Sket
109. Sea turtles – believed to have appeared 200 million years ago; www.2fla.com/seaturtls.htm ;
“A review of interspecific hybridization in the order testudines” Occasional Papers of the
BSG 8: 17 (2006) by TR Brophy, W Frair & D Clark; “Original kinds and turtle phylogeny”
Creation Research Society Quarterly 28: 21-24 (1991) by W. Frair; “Sea turtles – One of
today’s ‘living fossils’ “ Answers 2(3): 10-12 (July-September 2007) by Jean K. Lightner
110. Frilled shark (Chlamydoselachus anguineus) “Jaws of life” Answers 2(3): 16, 17
(July-September 2007)
111. crocodiles – “Jaws of life” Answers 2(3): 16, 17 (July-September 2007)
112. Andrias japonicus – the hanzaki giant salamander – believed to lived 30 million years ago;
found in Maniwa & displayed at Maniwa City, Japan; 5’ 6’’ long (1.7m);
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8497330.stm (February 4, 2010); See also:
Answers 5(3): 11 (July – September 2010)
113. Sphenodon – Gliedman “Miracle Mutations”, Science Digest (Feb, 1982) pgs.90, 92; A Case
for Creation by Wayne Frair & Percival Davis (Moody Press, 1967) pg.65
114. Gracilidris (ant) found in the Dominican Republic on Hispaniola Island; believed to have
been 15-20 million years; “Ants of the Dominican Amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). 3
The subfamily Dolichoderinae” Psyche 92(1): 17-37 (1985) by E.O. Wilson; “Rediscovery
of a fossil dolichoderine ant lineage (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) and a
description of a new genus from South America” Zootaxa 1142: 57-68 (2006) by A.L.
Wild and F. Cuezzo
115. Schizodactylidae (splay-footed crickets) a supposedly 100 million-year-old fossil (since since
the Early Cretaceous Period) was found in a limestone fossil bed in northeastern Brazil
and revealed that the genus has undergone very little supposed evolutionary change (in
the order Orthoptera)
source: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110203113758.htm; also see
“Rare insect fossil reveals 100 million years of evolutionary stasis” news.Illinois.edu
(February 3, 2011); and Creation 33(3): 9 (July – Sept 2011)
116. Protoanguilla Palau (Eel)- Believed to be 200 million years old (Mesozoic) until its modern
counterparts were discovered in an undersea cave beneath the Pacific Ocean at
Ngemelis Island, Palau; Proceedings of the Royal Society B; daily
mail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2026935/New-Pacific-eel-living-fossil-Protoanguilla-Palau-
200m-years-old.html
117. Albertochamsa langstoni (Alligator) from the Cretaceous (75 million years ago) on display
at Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta Canada compares to modern alligator Alligator
mississipiensis ; in Living Fossils: The Grand Experiment Vol.2 by Dr. Carl Werner; Also
featured in Creation 34(1): 56 (January – March, 2012)
118. Discovery of a new living fossil: a new Xylastodorine species from New Caledonia
(Insecta: Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) and first record of the subfamily from the
eastern Hemisphere in Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden (2010) 84: 93 – 115 by P. H.
van Doesburg, G. Cassis, and G. B. Monteith from the Eocene period (40 – 50 million
years ago).
119. A recent species of non-marine outraced, Crustacea genus Frambocythere Colin, 1980
(Limnocytheridae, Timiriaseviinae) had a previously known stratigraphical range from the
Albian (Lower Cretaceous) through to the Lutetium (middle Eocene). However, during
surveys of Seongryu Cave in Uljin-gun Province, South Korea, specimens of an extant
species of Frambocythere were discovered, a genus thought extinct since the Eocene
(greater than 40 millions years to the present). Journal of Micropaleontology (July 2012)
31(2) by Robin J. Smith, Jimin Lee, Long Geun Choy, Cheon Young Chang, and
Jean-Paul Colin
120. Algae – Believed to be 600 million years old – The Creation-Evolution Controversy by R.
L.
Wysong (Inquiry Press: Midland, Michigan, 1976) pg. 288
121. Malawania anachronus – New species of ichthyosaur from the Kurdistan region of Iraq
re-veiled in a study by an international team of scientists with results published in the May
15 issue of Biology Letters. This study contradicts previous theories that suggest the
ichthyosaurs of the Cretaceous period (between 145 and 66 million years ago). See:
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-05/uos-fsf051313.php and
http://www.express.co.uk/news/science-technology/399831/Mysterious-sea-monster-fossi
l…