Author: Mark Stewart
Abel, Niels Henrik (1802 – 1829)
Studied Mathematics. Made Major contributions in trigonometry theory, especially the study of
difficult transcendental functions. He founded group theory, a major field of math today. The class
of abelian groups are named in his honor.
Abney, Sir William (1843 – 1920)
As President of both the Royal Astronomical Society & the Royal Physical Society, he made a
number of significant studies identifying interstellar molecules through studies of spectroscopic
Agassiz, (Jean) Louis Rodolphe (1807 – 1873)
Swiss-American naturalist, one of the best informed and most capable biologists of his day, with
an ability to awaken the public’s interest in natural science. He introduced the theory that at one
time most of the earth was covered by glaciers. He was opposed to the Darwinian theory of
evolution, but believed in a theory of epochs of creation. He was the First Director of the Museum
of Comparative Zoology at Harvard.
Agnesi, Maria Gaetana (1718 – 1799)
She was one of the most extraordinary women scholars of all time. By the age of 10 she had
mastered French, Latin, Greek, and the Hebrew Language. She soon followed her father into the
world of mathematics. She expanded the known calculus of her day. Only her womanhood
prevented her from honored membership in the mathematical societies of her day.
Albright, William Foxwell (1897-1971)
He made innumerable contributions to Middle Eastern Archaeology. No archaeologist before or
since has attained to his level of achievements across the spectrum of requisite disciplines
(Semitic languages, Middle Eastern History and Archaeological techniques).
Anderson, Thomas (1819 – 1874)
He was a Fellow of the Royal Society and a prominent Scotch chemist, discoverer of pyridine and
other organic bases. As Regius Professor of Chemistry at Glasgow, he also edited the Edinburgh
New Philosophical Journal. He was one of the signatories of the Scientist’s Declaration of 1864.
Armstrong, Carol (1916 – 2001)
She proof-read the Creation Research Society Quarterly for many years. She wrote book reviews
and proof-read two CRS monographs. She had a Masters Degree in Child Psychology from the
University of Minnesota.
Armstrong, Harold L. (1921 – 1985)
He was a man of unusually wide reading and knowledge, especially in his field of Physics. He
had a Master of Science Degree in Physics from Queen’s University in Ontario. He had done
research in Electronics and semi-conductor devices. He was awarded the Medal of Physics and
the Governor General’s Medal of the Faculty of Applied Science (Queen’s University).
Assisi, St. Francis (1181 – 1226)
Known as the First Ecologist. He spent many years in the Italian countryside studying the details
of the Creation. He was a theologian as well as a pioneer naturalist.
Astruc, Jean (1684 – 1766)
He was the chief physician for several dukes and kings in the 18th century France. Astruc was
known widely as a master teacher. He was competent in many areas of medicine and his notes
can still be found in modern medical libraries. He was also an Old Testament scholar & readily
accepted its inspired accuracy.
Augustine, St. (354 – 430)
He was one of the foremost philosopher-theologians of early Christianity and, while serving as
bishop of Hippo Regius, the leading figure in the church of North Africa. He had a profound
influence on the subsequent development of Western thought and culture. His two most
celebrated writings include Confessions and City of God.
Babbage, Charles (1792 – 1871)
Established the scientific discipline of computer science & developed Actuarial Tables (used by
insurance companies) and the calculating machine. He invented the first speedometer, the first
skeleton keys, the first ophthalmoscope (instrument used by eye doctors) and the first
locomotive “cowcatcher”. He wrote the 9th & last of the Bridgewater Treatises. He formed the
Analytical Society at Cambridge in 1812. Member of the Royal Society and founding member of
the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1831 & helped form the
Royal Astronomical Society. He was instrumental in founding the Statistical Society in
1834, helped establish the modern postal system in England, & invented hundreds of tools &
mechanical devices for use in factories.
Bacon, Francis Sir (1561 – 1626)
Next to Shakespeare, the greatest intellectual figure in the Elizabethan Age of England. He was
a great jurist, statesman & philosopher. At 12 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge. He
remained there 3 yrs. He was admitted to the bar in 1582. His success was immediate, for he
was a convincing speaker & sound lawyer. He rose rapidly to the position of attorney general,
privy councilor & lord chancellor. In the last position he was head of the Court of Chancery as well
as presiding officer of the House of Lords. His writings are credited with leading to the founding of
the Royal Society of London.
Bacon, Roger (1214 – 1294)
Anticipating the scientific method, his written works present the first clear case for modern,
experimental science. He was the first to recognize “laws” of nature (speaking of optical laws of
reflection & refraction). His experiments with mirrors & lenses led to the invention of spectacles
shortly after his death. They also contributed to the later invention of the microscope & telescope.
He wrote of the sphericity of the earth & a future in which people would travel through the air
Baker, Henry (1698 – 1774)
He was a British Naturalist with many scientific interests. His two books about microscope studies
went through many editions. He did original investigations of microscopic crystal forms.
Balfour, John Hutton (1808 – 1884) He was a British Physician with an interest in botanical
studies. He became Director of the Royal Botanical Gardens in London & also was Professor of
Botany at Glasgow University. He was an outstanding teacher & authored several popular botany
Barnes, Thomas G. (1911 – 2001) He was Professor Emeritus of Physics at the University of
Texas in El Paso for over forty years. He was Director of the Schellenger Research Laboratories
there, in charge of numerous important governmentally-sponsered research projects in
atmospheric physics for twelve years. Dr. Barnes did research at Duke University, had been
appointed to the Atomic Energy Scientific & Advisory Committees in 1963 and 1964. He was coinventor
and engineer of “Dodar” (an electronic sound ranging device). He is best known for his
research on the decay of the earth’s magnetic moment.
Barrow, Isaac (1630 – 1677)
He was Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, even teaching math to Isaac Newton & thus
laying the foundations for Newton’s discovery of calculus.
Barton, Benjamin (1766 – 1815)
He was a prominent American physician, botanist, and zoologist, a professor at the University of
Bartram, John (1699 – 1777)
Considered the “Father of American Botany”. First American Botanist. Self Educated. He
explored the American forests from Canada’s Lake Ontario to Florida, classifying plants. In 1739
he hybridized flowering plants, apparently the first American to do so.
Bell, Charles (1774 – 1842)
He was one of the world’s greatest anatomists & surgeons. Author of many volumes, he was
Professor of Comparative Anatomy at the Royal College of Surgeons in England.
Best, Samuel (1802 – 1873)
He devoted his clerical life to serving the people of Abbots Ann near Andover. He established a
primary school to educate the children & a Friendly Society to help people. His knowledge of
geology was limited to what he read and, although he disagreed with some of the theories of
geologists, he made science an important part of the curriculum at Abbots Ann Primary School.
He wrote a 43-page booklet on geology. He had a Master of Arts Degree from
King’s College, Cambridge which he received in 1830.
Bliss, Richard B. (1923 – 1994)
He was a Science Educator for over 36 years. He received his Doctorate in Education in 1978
from the University of Sarasota. He was an Adjunct Professor at the University of Wisconsin. He
was mentioned in Marque’s Who’s Who in Education. He held several leadership positions in
state and national science associations.
Blyth, Edward (1810 – 1873)
He was a well respected naturalist/biologist and museum curator. He developed the concept
of natural selection 25 yrs. before Darwin wrote the Origin of Species and regarded it as a
Boerhaave, Hermann (1668 – 1738)
Known as the founder of rational medicine & chemistry. He was regarded by many as one of the
most influential surgeons of the early 18th century. Amongst his greatest contributions to
medicine were the use of post- mortem examinations to find the cause of fatal illnesses & the
use of the Fahrenheit thermometer in the clinical assessment of patients. The syndrome that’s
named after him he described in 1724.
Boice, James Montgomery (1938 – 2000)
He was an outstanding world-famous Bible scholar, statesman for Reformation Theology, and
was the teacher on the Bible Study Hour Radio Broacast for over thirty years and broadcast over
238 radio stations. He authored an excellent 3-volume commentary on Genesis. He was
President of the Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals and wrote or contributed to over 60 books on
the Bible and theology.
Boole, George (1815 – 1864)
He was an English Mathematician who helped establish symbolic logic, now called
Boolean Algebra. Largely self-educated, he was a Professor of Mathematics.
Boyle, Robert (1627 – 1691)
Established scientific discipline of Chemistry & Gas Dynamics. One of the founders of the Royal
Society of London. Generally credited as “the father of modern chemistry”. His contributions in
both physics & chemistry are very great in number. He was considered in his time to be probably
the greatest physical scientist of his generation. Boyle was the first to distinguish between a
mixture & a compound. He discovered the part air plays in carrying sound waves.
Brahe, Tycho (1545 – 1601)
He made enormous contributions to astronomy. In 1572 he observed the new star in
Cassiopeia. He built the finest observatory in Europe near Copenhagen. Brahe designed & built
new instruments, calibrated them, & instituted nightly observations. He ran his own printing press.
Tycho trained a generation of young astronomers there in the art of observing. He was the
first astronomer to make corrections for atmospheric refraction. His observation of a comet
in 1577 was instrumental in establishing the fact that these bodies were above the Moon & that
the heavens were not immutable as Aristotle had argued.
Brander, Gustavus (1720 – 1787)
English Naturalist & Paleontologist whose abundant fossil collections are now in the British
Museum. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society & a Trustee of the British Museum.
Braun, Wernher von (1912 – 1977)
Father of Modern Space Flight & Famous NASA rocket Engineer. He obtained a Ph.D. in Physics
at the age of 22 from the University of Berlin. Braun developed the B-2 rocket, directed the U.S.
guided missile missile development for several years & then became Director of NASA. Recipient
of the Certificate of Merit, National Health Agency; the State of Alabama Academy of Honor, the
Order for the Merit of Research & Inventions of Paris; Americna Society of Mechanical
Engineer’s Man of the Year Award, Associated Press Man of the Year in Science Award;
Smithsonian Institution Langley Medal; Federal Cross of Merit medal from the Republic of W.
Germany (1972); Honorary Academic degrees include Doctorates from Notre Dame University,
Emory University in Atlanta & the University of Pittsburgh. Braun had written a regular column for
Popular Science Monthly on space science.
Brewster, David (1781 – 1868)
Mineralogist. Established the scientific discipline of Optical Mineralogy, describing light
polarization & inventing the stereoscope/kaleidoscope. He also mad notable studies in astronomy
& received many scientific prizes & honors. He was one of the founders of the British Association
for the Advancement of Science, later serving as its president. One paper he published in the
Association’s journal described a large nail found embedded in a large stone taken from a quarry.
Brown, Arthur I. (1875 – 1947) He was a Medical Doctor and practicing physician in
Vancouver, Bristish Columbia, Canada. He wrote several books on the Bible & evolution.
Bryan, William Jennings (1860 – 1925)
Great orator. He had been called the “Great Commoner” because of his ability to speak to the
average person and so was very popular. Bryan was U.S. Representative from Nebraska to
Congress in 1891- 95. He was nominated for president in 1896,1900, and 1908. In 1912 Bryan
helped Woodrow Wilson get elected, & Wilson named Bryan his Secretary of State. While in
office, he negotiated peace treaties with 30 nations & helped promote
Wilson’s progressive policies. He was a crusader against Darwinian evolution and was
involved in the famous “Scopes trial” in 1925.
Buckland, William (1784 – 1856)
English geologist. He served twice as President of the Geological Society of London. As
Professor of Geology at Oxford University, he was trained in geology & mineralogy. He wrote a
number of books and became known for his systematic study of Great Britian’s geologic
Bugg, George (1769 – 1851)
He was admitted to St. John’s College, Cambridge in May 1791, and recieved the B.A. degree in
1795. His most significant work was a massive two-volume “Scriptural Geology” written in 1826-
Burnet, Thomas (1635 – 1715)
Geologist – Englishman who published a treatise in 1681, “A Sacred Theory of the Earth”. It was
the most popular geologic work of the seventeenth century.
Butt, Stephen Murray (1947 – 1996)
He received a Bachelor of Science (Biology) Degree from George Fox College in 1970. Butt
worked with the United States Air Force from 1970 to 1974 with top secret security clearance. His
job was to analyze sensitive electronic emissions, radar work, which is where he began much or
his underlying research and work on insect flight. He earned a Master of Science Degree in
Entomology from No. Arizona University with his thesis on “the effect of powerline construction on
arthropod communities in Arizona”.
Carver, George Washington (1860 – 1943)
American scientist and Agricultural Chemist. Carver was a faculty member at the Tuskegee
Institute in Alabama. He was considered the world’s top authority on peanut & sweet potatoes &
their products, making hundreds of useful products from peanuts, cotton, sweet potatoes and
clay. Carver developed over four-hundred products from peanuts and over one hundred-eighteen
from the sweet potato. He also pioneered the production of synthetic marble from wood chips
long before plastics were first produced from food wastes. In 1939, he was awarded the
Roosevelt medal. In 1940 Carver gave his life savings toward establishing the George
Washington Carver Foundation for research in agricultural chemistry.
Catcott, Alexander (1725 – 1779)
Lecturer in St. Johns. Catcott was a careful observer of landforms. He made
important observations of the effects of erosion of retreating flood waters and had written “A
Treatise on the Deluge” in 1761.
Cauchy, Augustin-Louis (1789 – 1857)
Cauchy did much original work in differential equation solutions & in understanding group theory.
During the last nineteen years of his life he produced over five-hundred technical papers
explaining the mathematical foundations of mechanics, physics, and astronomy. He was the first
to fully explain the important mathematical concepts of limit and convergence of functions.
Chalmers, Thomas (1780 – 1847)
Professor of Theology at the University of Edinburgh. He authored the first two Bridgewater
Treatises, published in two volumes. Chalmers wrote extensively on social and natural sciences,
as well as theology.
Charleton, Walter (1619 – 1707)
He was an active early member of the Royal Society and also served as President of the
Royal College of Physicians.
Cheyne, George (1671 – 1743)
He was a Scottish physician. Cheyne wrote “An Essay on Health and Long Life” in 1725. He
argued that life could not arise from inorganic matter.
Chrysostom (345 – 407)
Bishop of Constantinople. He had written many powerful sermons, some of which were in
defiance to the state.
Clark, Gordon Haddon (1902 – 1985)
Clark received a Ph.D. in Philosophy from the University of Pennsylvania in 1929. He wrote on
“Religion, Reason, and Revelation” in 1961 and on “The Philosophy of Science and Belief in
God” in 1964.
Clark, Harold W. (1891 – 1986)
Biologist. Was Professor Emeritus of Biology at the Seventh Day Adventist Pacific Union College
in California graduating in 1922. He received a Master of Arts Degree from the University of
California in 1933 in the field of Zoology/Ecology. For thirty-six years Clark was head of
the Biology Department of Pacific Union College, Angwin, California. He had written several
books on creation which have been published since 1929. He was President of the Life Origins
Foundation. Clark held an honorary degree of Doctor of Science from Pacific Union College.
Clark, Robert E.D. (1907 – 1984)
Clark was a citizen of Great Britian who was born in Pakistan (the India). He was educated at St.
Lawrence College, Ramsgate, & St. John’s College, Cambridge, graduating with first class
honors in 1928. Clark received his Ph.D. in 1932 in Natural Science/Organic Chemistry from St.
John’s College, Cambridge University. From 1949 to 1971 he had been Lecturer & taught
Chemistry at the Cambridgeshire College of Arts & Technology, Cambridge, retiring as senior
lecturer. He was Vice President in charge of Research at Harding College in Searcy, Arkansas.
Cole, Henry (1792 – 1858)
Flood Geologist. He received his B.D. degree in 1848 and his D.D. in 1854 both from
Cambridge. Cole wrote “Popular Geology Subversion of Divine Revelation” in 1834 and “The
Flood” in 1883.
Compton, Arthur Holly (1892 – 1962)
Compton received a Bachelor of Science Degree in 1913 from the College of Wooster, Ohio,
a Master of Arts Degree in 1914 and Ph.D. in Physics in 1916 both from Princeton University. He
won the Nobel Prize in 1927 for the Compton Effect. He wrote “Man’s Destiny in Eternity” in 1949.
Cook, Melvin Alonzo (1911 – 2000)
Cook received a Master of Arts Degree from the University of Utah in 1934 and his Ph.D. in
Physical Chemistry from Yale University in 1937. He won the Loomis Award from Yale University
in 1937. Cook was former Professor of Metallurgy at the University of Utah (1947 – 1970). Winner
of the 1968 E.V. Murphree Award in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry from the American
Chemical Society as well as winner of the Nobel Nitro Award. Cook also received the Chemistry
Pioneer Award from the American Institute of Chemists in 1973. He was Founder and President
of the Ireco Chemical Company, Salt Lake City. Cook was Nobel Prize nominee explosives
expert and Director of the Explosives Research Institute of the University of Utah.
Copernicus, Nicholas (1473 – 1543)
The founder of modern astronomy. Studied Mathematics at the University of Cracow. In 1947, he
was appointed canon of the cathedral of Frauenburg. Copernicus studied Law at Bologna and
Medicine at Padua. In 1500 he lectured on astronomy in Rome. Such men as Galileo & Kepler
were influenced by his work.
Criswell, Wallie Amos (1909 – 2002)
Received a Bachelor of Arts Degree in English from Baylor University in 1931, a Master of
Theology Degree in 1934 and a Ph.D. in 1937 both from Southern Baptist Theological Seminary,
Louiseville, Kentucky. Criswell authored fifty-four books including “Did Man Just Happen?” in
1957 and had eight doctorates bestowed upon him.
Curtis, George Ticknor (1812 – 1894)
Curtis wrote “Creation or Evolution? A Philosophical Inquiry” in 1887.
Custance, Arthur C. (1910 – 1985)
Custance received a Bachelor of Arts Degree and a Master of Arts Degree with honors in Oriental
Languages (Greek and Hebrew) from the University of Toronto in 1940 and an honorary Ph.D.
from the University of Ottawa school of psychology & education in 1970. He was a student of
cuneiform and Middle Eastern languages. Custance was head of the Human Engineering
Laboratory in Applied Physiology, a division of the Defense Research Board in
Ottawa, from 1955 to 1970. He was a member of the Canadian Physiological Society, a Fellow of
the Royal Anthropological Institute and was listed in the 1971 edition of American Men of
Science. Among his publications were a series of 52 treatises termed “the Doorway Papers”.
Cuvier, Georges (1769 – 1832)
Comparative Anatomist. Cuvier was Founder of the studies of Paleontology. His almost
exhaustive work in classifying living and fossil animals resulted in many publications, most
notable is his five-volume “Le Regne animal distribue’ d’apre’s son organisation”
Cyr, Donald L. (1920 – 1999)
Cyr had a Bachelor of Science Degree in Industrial Engineering from the University of Southern
California. He wrote a number of articles on the vapor canopy idea and a book on the origin of
Saturn’s Rings in 1944.
Dalton, John (1766 – 1844)
English chemist. He is considered the father of modern atomic theory. His first love was
meteorology. He developed the well-known gas law of partial pressures (Dalton’s Law). Dalton
was the first to recognize and describe color blindness. He was one of the founders of the
British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1831. In 1832 he was awarded a doctorate
by Oxford University. He taught himself mathematics and chemistry, making his own instruments.
Dalton composed the first table of elements.
Dana, James (1813 – 1895)
Dana was an American Geologist, successor at Yale to Professor Silliman and author of many
influential books on Geology and Mineralology. He was an early president of both the Geological
Society of America and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Davies, Col. L. Merson (1890 – 1960)
Davies was a geologist of considerable training and experience. Gold medalist in geology of
England. He was a long and active participant in England’s Evolution Protest Movement. He held
both a Ph.D. and a D.Sc. in Geology and was a working geologist and paleontologist for about 30
years, publishing many significant articles in British geological journals. He participated in a
number of creation/evolution debates with such leading British evolutionists as J.B.S. Haldane
and others. His palaeontological research specialized in Foraminifera. He indicated that he was
constantly face to face with facts regarding the fossil faunas of the past which he was unable to
reconcile with the theory of evolution.
Da Vinci, Leonardo (1452 – 1519)
Established the scientific discipline of Hydraulics. Considered by many to be the real founder of
modern science. He was also a great artist, Engineer & architect, designing many of the chief
structures and public works of Milan. His scientific notebooks are filled with studies and analyses
of problems in dynamics, anatomy, physics, optics, biology, hydraulics and even
aeronautics. He was an experimental scientist long before the formulation of the scientific
Davy, Sir Humphrey (1778 – 1829)
Established the scientific discipline of Thermokinetics. He was one of the great chemists of this
period, the man under whom Faraday served as apprentice and inspired this period, the man
under whom Faraday served as apprentice & inspired Faraday to devote his life to science. He
was the first to isolate many important chemical elements, to develop the motion theory of heat,
to invent the safety lamp and to demonstrate that diamond is carbon, along with many other
Dawson, John William (1820 – 1899)
Geologist. Dawson was the greatest of the early Canadian geologists, contributing significantly to
the elucidation of the geology of Canada. He was the first president of the American Association
for Advancement of Science. Dawson was knighted in 1884. He wrote many geological papers
and books and a number of creationist works. Dawson was President of the British Association
and was Principal & Vice-Chancellor of McGill University, Montreal.
Deen, Braswell Drue, Jr. (1893 – 1981)
He was an Atlanta Judge and creation lobbyist. Deen was Chief Judge of Georgia’s Court of
Appeals and held a combination business and law degree. He served in the General Assembly
eight years, legislating or creating positive law, practiced law for sixteen years, ten of which while
serving as County Attorney, served as Georgia’s Eighth District U.S. Representative in Congress
from 1933 to 1939, and served fourteen years as a member of the Georgia Court of Appeals. He
lectured frequently on a variety of topics related to the Constitution, separation of church & state,
De Haan, Martin R. (1891 – 1965)
De Haan was a Medical Doctor, author and founder of the ‘Radio Bible Class’. He wrote “Jonah –
Fact or Fiction?” in 1957 and “Genesis and Evolution” in 1962.
Deluc, Jean-Andre (1727 – 1817)
Swiss Naturalist & physicist who studied geology and actually coined the word “geology”. He
and his father developed the modern mercury thermometer and the hygrometer. He wrote books
on geology and meteorology.
Derham, William (1657 – 1735)
He was one of the Boyle lecturers writing a treatise on the strong exposition of purposive design
in nature. Derham could be considered the father of ecology.
Descartes, Rene’ (1596 – 1650)
Greatest French Philosopher. Inventor of analytic Geometry. Applying Algebra to Geometry, he
gave later scientists the ability to make the calculations that provided us with our first quantitative
understanding of nature’s laws. His greatest achievement was to effectively lead philosophy away
from Medieval scholaticism into the clear reasoning that results from questioning all past
Dewar, Douglas (1875 – 1957)
British Biologist & Ornithologist. A Cambridge science graduate, later studied law; spent many
years in the civil service in India. He became an authoritative ornithologist, writing over twentytwo
books on Indian birds and Indian History. He was Founder of the Evolution Protest
Movement in London in 1932 and long time leader of this organization. Dewar wrote numerous
papers & books expounding the scientific basis of creation. He was elected President & Vice-
President of the Victoria Institute and participated in a number of both written & oral
creation/evolution debates with leading evolutionists including H.S. Shelton, J.B.S. Haldane, &
Joseph McCabe. Dewar was a Fellow of the Zoological Society.
Dooyeweerd, Herman (1894 – 1977)
He received a Doctorate in Law from the Free University of Amsterdam, Netherlands with his
dissertation on the cabinet in Dutch constitutional law. He was Professor of Legal philosophy and
encyclopedia of law at the Free University from 1926 to 1965 when he retired. He wrote on “The
Secularization of Science” in 1954.
Draper, John William (1811 – 1882)
Draper wrote “History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science” in 1875.
Duyvene’ De Wit, Jacobus Johannes (1909 – 1965)
Professor of Zoology from 1951 to 1964 at the University of the Orange Free State, South Africa.
He studied biology at Utrecht and received his M.Sc. degree in 1933. From 1933 to 1946 he was
head of the scientific department of a pharmaceutical company. In his spare time he continued
his research with the species of Bitterling a small fresh water fish. He earned his Ph.D. “cum
laude” in 1939. From 1946 to 1950 he served as head of the Institute for Animal Production under
the Central Organization for Applied Scientific Research of the Netherlands. He continued his
research on the Bitterling at the University of Utrecht. In 1950 & 1951 he served as Professor of
Physiology at the Free University in Amsterdam & remained scientific advisor to the Institute for
Dwight, Timothy (1752 – 1817)
Dwight was an educator and was President of Yale University.
Eckelmann, Herman John Jr. (1925 – 2001)
Astrophysicist with studies in electrical engineering. Eckelmann received a Bachelor’s Degree in
Electrical Engineering from Cornell University in 1949. He received a Master of Divinity Degree
from Faith Theological Seminary in 1952. Eckelmann was a research associate with the Center
for Radiophysics and Space Research at Cornell. He retired ultimately as its chief photographer
and designer of a color stereo close-up camera for U.S. manned lunar landings.
Eddington, Arthur (1882 – 1944)
Eddington was trained in Astronomy at the British Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England. He
pioneered work in Astrophysics with an emphasis on stellar structure. He was the first to calculate
the diameter of Red giant stars, including Betelgeuse.
Edwards, Jonathan (1703 – 1758)
Edwards wrote an essay on flying spiders, a basis for their classification & theory of equilibrium
regarding their navigation and formulated a hypothesis about their webs being spun from a liquid
substance at the age of 11/12 and at 12 an essay on colors. At age 13 he entered Yale College
and wrote “Notes on Natural Science”.
Euler, Leonhard (1707 – 1783)
He was one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. He authored outstanding
mathematics papers and books totaling seventy volumes.
Fabre, Henri (1823 – 1915)
French biologist – entomologist. Generally considered the “Father of entomology”. He wrote many
books on science. He received many high honors for his scientific investigations. His ten volume
set “Souvenirs Entomologigues” was crowned by the Institute of France. Certain of his books
were used as textbooks in French state schools.
Fabricius, David (1564 – 1617)
Fabricius was a Dutch astronomer who discovered the first known variable star in 1596, later
Faraday, Michael (1791 – 1867)
Faraday was one of the greatest physicists of all time. He discovered Electromagnetic induction
and developed the disciplines of electromagnetics and field theory. Faraday became a member of
the Royal Society in 1821. He invented the electric generator, electric motor, transformer, and
made many other key discoveries and inventions. He formulated the two laws of electrolysis
which have since formulated the basis for electrochemistry. Two basic units, one in electrolysis,
and one in electrostatics, are named in his honor. He also made many key contributions in
chemistry. Faraday discovered benzene, the liquefying of chlorine, and the alloying of steel. Had
Nobel prizes been awarded in his days, some say his discoveries should have brought him at
least five of them. He is often acknowledged as the greatest experimental genius of all time. All
his knowledge was gained by his own reading and experimentation. In 1832, Oxford University
awarded him an Honorary Doctorate. He had received almost a hundred medals/diplomas from
various institutions. Faraday refused the presidency of the Royal Society and the Royal
Institution, preferring to devote himself to research.
Ferguson, James (1710 – 1776)
Ferguson was a Scottish Astronomer and instrument maker. He published many technical papers
concerning solar eclipses and constructed theoretical models for the formation of the planets.
Ferguson, Rick (1955 – 2002)
Ferguson was a graduate of Missouri Baptist College, St Louis in 1978. He receive a Master of
Divinity Degree from Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary in Fort Worth, Texas and a
Doctor of Ministry Degree from Luther Rice Seminary, Atlanta. Ferguson was Pastor of Riverside
Baptist Church in Denver and was a strong Biblical creationist.
Flamsteed, John (1646 – 1719)
Founder of the famous Greenwich observatory and the first Astronomer Royal of England. He
produced the first great star map of the telescopic age. The meridians of the world are as a result
referenced to 0 degrees longitude through his observatory.
Fleming, Sir John Ambrose (1849 – 1945)
His discoveries and developments in electronics almost entitle him to be called the father of
modern electronics. He was President of the Victoria Institute for a time and published many
excellent articles in its journal, the “Journal of the Victoria Institute” including a fine critique of
radiometric dating, as well as at least one important book. Fleming was Co-Founder and first
President of the Evolution Protest Movement. He devised the electron tube in 1904. He studied
under Maxwell at Cambridge and worked as a consultant for Thomas Edison and Marconi.
Fleming served over forty years as Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of
London, receiving many medals and honors by various scientific societies for his contributions in
electronics, radio and television. He invented the thermionic wireless valve and the diode
making radio broadcasting possible. Fleming was Honorary Fellow of St. John’s College,
Cambridge, and was Fellow of University College, London.
Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642)
Galileo studied at Pisa, where he later held the chair in mathematics from 1589 to 1592. He was
then appointed to the chair of mathematics at the University of Padua, where he remained until
1610. During those years he carried out studies & experiments in mechanics, and also built a
thermoscope. He devised & constructed a geometrical & military compass. In 1594 he obtained
the patent for a machine to raise water levels. Galileo invented the microscope, and built a
telescope with which he discovered the satellites of Jupiter. In 1610 he was nominated the
foremost Mathematician of the University of Pisa and given the title of mathematician to the
Grand Duke of Tuscany. He studied Saturn & observed the phases of Venus. Galileo became a
member of the Accademia dei Lincei and observed sunspots.
Gassendi, Pierre (1592 – 1655)
Gassendi was the first to observe a planetary transit across the face of the sun, that of Mercury in
1631. This observation helped verify Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. He experimented with the
principle of inertia and helped to explain this universal tendency. He introduced the term aurora
borealis in 1621 to describe the northern and southern lights.
Geering, Esme’ (1920 – 1997)
Author of the Tom & Jerry segment of the Our World supplement in Creation Magazine. She was
a science teacher and had joined the Evolution Protest Movement in 1936 and actively wrote
many creationist articles.
Gilbert, Sir Joseph Henry (1817 – 1901)
One of the prominent Fellows of the Royal Society who signed the Scientific Declaration. As an
agricultural chemist, he developed nitrogen and superphosphate fertilizers for use with crops and
helped develop (as first co-director) the world’s first agricultural experimental station, located in
Hertfordshire in 1843. He also served as Professor of Rural Economy at Oxford University.
Gisborne, Thomas (1758 – 1846)
Gisborne graduated from St. John’s College, Cambridge with a Bachelor of Arts Degree in 1780
as sixth wrangler and first chancellor’s medallist. He received his Master of Arts Degree in 1783.
Gisborne was recognized as a writer, poet, moralist, and natural philosopher. He was considered
as one of the greatest geniuses of the age. Gisborne wrote thirteen books two of which were
“Testimony of Natural Theology to Christianity” in 1818 and “Considerations on Modern Theories
of Geology” in 1837.
Glaisher, James (1809 – 1903)
Glaisher was for thirty-four years superintendent of the department of meteorology and
magnetism at the Greenwich Observatory, publishing his standard dew-point tables which are still
in use. He established the British Meteorological Society in 1850 and the Aeronautical Society in
1866. He was one of the signers of the famous Declaration of 1864.
Gosse, Philip H. (1810 – 1888)
British Ornithologist and author of numerous books on zoology. He was made a fellow of the
Royal Society in 1865. He wrote “Omphalos: An Attempt to Untie the Geological Knot”.
s’ Gravesande, Willem Jacob (1688 – 1742)
He was an outstanding Dutch mathematician. He wrote “Mathematical Elements of Physics” in
Grebe, John J. (1900 – 1984)
Grebe was a child prodigy and graduated from Cleveland’s East Technical High School with top
honors in 1918. He received a Bachelor of Science Degree in 1924, a Master of Science Degree
in Physics in 1928 and a Doctorate of Science Degree in 1935 from Case Institute of Technology.
In 1942 he was given the Certificate of Merit by the Franklin Institute for his invention of
Koolshade (to keep out insects and the heat of the sun). In 1943 he became the youngest man
ever to receive the Chemical Industry Medal as a reward for his research. In 1946 Grebe received
the Hyatt Award for Plastics Development. From 1946 to 1947 Grebe performed research at the
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and had headed, as Chief Scientist to the Army Chemical Corps
at the Edgewood Arsenal’s scientific activities from 1948 to 1949 and had been Director of DOW
Chemical’s Physical Chemistry Research Laboratories. In 1967 he received the Honorary Doctor
of Laws Degree from Hillsdale College, Michigan. Grebe’s research in physical chemistry led to
the extraction of chemicals such as bromine from sea water and he held over a hundred patents
in electrochemistry, the synthesis of organic compounds, and nuclear reactors. He did extensive
research in electromagnetic analysis, electrolysis of fused salts, high temperature
cracking processes for making butadiene and synthetic rubber, plus theoretical work on gravity
and time cycles. Grebe was also responsible for the development of Styrofoam, synthetic rubber
and Saran Wrap. He was a Member of the Advisory Committee of Radiation and Isotope
Development for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.
Grew, Nehemiah (1641 – 1712)
Grew was co-founder of the science of plant anatomy. He was both an English medical doctor
and a botanist, doing important research and writing on plant anatomy. Grew also wrote
extensively on the evidence of unique design in both plants and animals. He was one of the first
members of the Royal Society. Grew is credited with the discovery that plant stamens are male
organs and developed the first theory to account for pollen. He was the first to describe the
precisely individual make-up of finger ridges.
Guyot, Arnold (1807 – 1884)
Guyot was a naturalist of repute. He taught geology at Princeton University.
Hales, Stephen (1677 – 1761)
Hales is ranked with the greatest of physiologists, chemists, botantists, and inventors. He is
remembered for introducing rigorous quantitative methods to the study of animal and plant
physiology. Hales made the first quantitative measure of blood pressure; his experiments led to
the development of the instruments still used for measuring blood pressure today. Among his
inventions were devices to distill fresh water from sea water and ventilators for pumping fresh air
into ship holds, hospitals and jails. He was the first to claim that plants absorbed air through their
leaves, converting it into solid substances. Grew made the first deductions about the chemistry of
the air and about the fact that leaves actually processed light for the plant’s use.
Haller, Albrecht von (1708 – 1777)
Was educated at the University of Tubingen and at the University of Leyden. In 1735, after
practicing medicine for eight years in Bern, Haller accepted the position as chair of medicine,
anatomy, surgery, and botany at the University of Gottingen. He remained there for seventeen
years, then returned to Switzerland to spend the rest of his life in research & writing. Haller was
an illustrustrious scholar and prolific writer whose interests included poetry, botany, ancient
languages, biography, and philosophy, as well as medicine. He compiled twenty volumes of
bibliographies on anatomy, botany, surgery, and medicine. As physiologist, he proved the
concept of “irritability” of tissue, distinguishing between nerve impulse (sensibility) and muscular
contraction (irritability). In 1747, he published his observations in “First Lines of Physiology”.
Harris, John (1666 – 1719)
An early member, Fellow, and Vice President of the Royal Society in the late 1600 to early
1700’s. Harris was an early English Mathematician. He was editor of “The Dictionary of Arts of
Sciences” in 1704, considered to be the first real encyclopedia in the English language.
Hartley, David (1705 – 1757)
Hartley studied medicine. His book “Observations on Man, His Fame, His Duty, His
Expectations” (1749) was the first published work in English to use the word “psychology” in its
Harvey, William (1578 – 1657)
Harvey discovered the circulation of the blood and wrote “On the Circulation of the Blood”, “On
the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals” and “On the Generation of Animals”.
Henslow, John Stevens (1796 – 1861)
Henslow was Professor of Botany and Mineralogy at the University of Cambridge in England. His
enthusiasm for teaching botany made it one of the most popular subjects at Cambridge. Charles
Darwin was one of his students.
Henry, Joseph (1797 – 1878)
Invented the electric motor and the Galvanometer. Henry was a great American physicist and
Professor at Princeton University. He co-discovered with Michael Faraday the principle of selfinduction
(the standard unit for which is named after him). He was the first Secretary and Director
of the Smithsonian Institution, one of the charter members of the National Academy of Sciences,
and Founder and early President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
He invented a powerful short-coil magnet. Using a long one, he first demonstrated long-distance
transmission of electrical current, paving the way for the commercial telegraph. While serving as
the first director of the Smithsonian Institution, Henry organized a corps of weather observers and
supervised them for thirty years. Their successful work led to the creation of the U.S. Weather
Herschel, Caroline (1750 – 1848)
Herschel worked as an astronomy assistant for her brother. She basically was self-educated. She
catalogued 14 new nebulae, including the Andromeda Galaxy. Between 1786 to 1797, she
discovered 8 new comets. The British Royal Astronomical Society voted her a Gold Medal in
1828 and later made her an honorary member in 1835. Herschel was the first important
woman astronomer. She was made a member of the Royal Irish Academy in 1838. In 1846 she
was awarded the Gold Medal for Science by the King of Prussia.
Herschel, John (1792 – 1871)
Son of Sir William Herschel. He was an outstanding Astronomer like his father. He discovered
over 500 new nebulae and performed the task of cataloging the stars and nebulae. He had an
excellent education. Initially he became a mathematician. Herschel co-formed the Analytical
Society, which undertook the task of translating books on the latest European mathematical
methods into English. He was the first astronomer to measure the brightness of stars with real
precision. Herschel made detailed observations of Halley’s comet. He also authored an extremely
successful textbook on Astronomy. Herschel pioneered the use of sodium thiosulphite (hypo) as a
fixing agent in early photography. He was one of the first to apply photography to astronomy.
Herschel strongly opposed evolution.
Herschel, William (1738 – 1822)
Established the scientific discipline of Galatic Astronomy. Herschel made many great discoveries,
the most notable being recognition of double stars and the discovery of Uranus. He constructed
the greatest reflecting telescopes of his day (over 400) and catalogued and studied nebulae, 848
double-stars, and galaxies as never before. Herschel discovered two new moons for Saturn, the
sixth and the seventh. He was awarded the prestigious Copely Award of the Royal Society for his
discovery of Uranus. He later discovered the two largest moons of Uranus – Titania and Oberon.
In 1800 he correctly hypothesized the existence of infrared heat waves. Herschel also correctly
predicted many properties of infrared radiation. In 1820, he published a catalogue of 2500 new
nebulae. In 1816 he was knighted and in 1821 he became President of the Astronomical Society.
He also received honors from academics and countries all over the world.
Hillstead, George (1926 – 2001)
Hillstead was closely associated with the creation movement. He came to Christian Heritage
College in 1971, first as Director of Development and then as Vice-President for Business Affairs.
He was one of the founding directors of Creation-Life Publishers (now known as Master Books)
when it was organized in 1974, resigning from the college soon afterwards to become its
general manager. He served in that capacity until 1984. Although the company had several
general managers after his resignation he continued very effectively in its administration as an
active board member. Although the company was started on a shoestring, as it were, and always
struggled financially, it was largely through his efforts that it was able to continue for over 22
years, publishing and marketing some 75 influential books on creation and Christian evidences,
as well as many videos on creation. He eventually led in the mutually beneficial sale of the
company to New Leaf Publishers in 1996, where it has continued to function effectively in this key
type of ministry.
Hitchcock, Edward (1793 – 1864)
Hitchcock was one of the first American geologists of importance, making important studies on
glacial geology and serving many years as a Massachusetts state geologist. He was the first and
for twenty years, the only, teacher of scientific subjects at Amherst College. From 1845 until his
death, he was President of Amherst serving as Professor of Geology. During his later years he
also was state geologist for Vermont. He made the first detailed study of the Connecticut River
Hoffman, Friedrich (1660 – 1742)
The Hoffman voltameter, an electrolytic apparatus, typically using dilute sulfuric acid as
electrolyte, which effectively caused the electrolysis of water, thus producing hydrogen and
oxygen, in a 2 to 1 ratio by volume, at the two electrodes, was named after him. He was
Physician to King of Prussia.
Hooke, Robert (1635 – 1703)
Hooke was a brilliant physicist and geologist.
Horse, Jedidian (1761 – 1826)
Horse was a geographer.
Howitt, John R. (1892 – 1985)
Hospital psychiatrist and superintendent in Canada. Howitt was a physician and author of
numerous pamphlets published through the International Christian Crusade. He wrote “Evolution:
Science Falsely So Called”.
Huggins, Sir William (1824 – 1910)
Well known as a brilliant English astronomer. Huggins was the first to demonstrate from spectral
studies that stars were composed mostly of hydrogen, along with smaller amounts of the same
elements existing on Earth. He was also the first to identify the Doppler effect in astronomy. He
was President of the Royal Society from 1900 to 1905.
Hutchinson, John (1674 – 1737)
Geologist. Hutchinson was also both a Hebrew Scholar and an early student of paleontology.
Huygens, Christian (1629 – 1695)
Huygens was Europe’s greatest mathematician during his lifetime. He invented the pendulum
clock in 1656, geometry theorems, optic laws and discovered the largest of Saturn’s moons,
Titan, in 1655. Huygens developed the wave theory of light.
Jones, Martyn Lloyd (1899 – 1981)
Jones was a distinguished physician, trained in medical science, and a theologian.
Joule, James Prescott (1818 – 1889)
Established the scientific discipline of Reversible Thermodynamics. Joule conducted numerous
studies on heat flow and received many honors. His greatest discovery made in 1840, was the
value of the constant of the mechanical equivalent of heat making possible the quantitative
conversion of heat energy into mechanical energy and vise versa. This conversion factor led to
the formulation of the law of conservation of energy (first law of thermodynamics).
He was taught chemistry, physics, the scientific method and mathematics by the famous
English chemist John Dalton. President of the British Association in 1872 and 1887.
Keckermann, Bartholomew (1571 – 1609)
Keckermann was a Polish leader in Astronomy, Mathematics and Educational Philosophy, with a
special interest in the origin of comets.
Kelly, Howard A. (1858 – 1943)
Kelly was a great American Surgeon. Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics for twenty-two
years with the outstanding medical school of John Hopkins University. He was the number one
gynecologist in America for the first two decades of this century. He wrote many authoritative
books in his field.
Kelvin, Lord (William Thompson) (1824 – 1907)
Established the scientific discipline of Energetics and Thermodynamics. Major contribution:
Absolute Temperature Scale. Kelvin was an infant and teen-age prodigy and held the chair of
Natural Philosophy at the University of Glasgow for fifty-four years. The number of his
contributions in physics and mathematics, as well as inventions was enormous. He made studies
which later enabled Morse to invent the Telegraph. Kelvin supervised the design and laying
of the first Atlantic Cable. He was knighted and given a barony. Kelvin held twenty-one honorary
doctorates. He published over 300 papers. He invented ship’s compasses and devices for ships
to take soundings.
Kepler, Johann (1571 – 1630)
Established the scientific discipline of celestial mechanics and physical astronomy, developed the
Ephemeri’s Tables. Kepler discovered the laws of planetary motion. He demonstrated the
heliocentricity of the solar system, contributed to the development of calculus. Kepler studied
two years in a seminary, left there to study and teach astronomy. He obtained a scholarship from
the Duke of Wurttemberg and began attending the University of Tubingen in 1587. Kepler
obtained his Bachelor of Arts Degree in 1588 and his Master of Arts Degree in 1591. He
continued at Tubingen studying theology. In 1594 Kepler was asked to teach Mathematics at
Graz, Austria and accepted. He became district mathematician. In 1600, he joined Tycho Brahe
and his team of astronomers. He discovered a supernovae, analyzed how the human eye works,
and made improvements in the telescope.
Kidd, John (1775 – 1851)
Kidd was Professor of Chemistry at Oxford during most of his career and made many significant
contributions in his field. He pioneered the use of coal as a source of chemicals, his work
eventually providing the foundation for the development of synthetics. Kidd was chosen to
present one of the Bridgewater Treatises, entitled “The Adaptation of Nature to the Physical
Condition of Man”. Co-discoverer of naphthalene in coal tar.
Kirby, William (1759 – 1850)
President of the Royal Society of London. English entomologist. Kirby wrote many scientific
works. He is best known for his authorship of two of the famous Bridgewater Treaties. He also
wrote extensively on flood geology. He entered Gonville and Caius College in Cambridge in 1776.
Kircher, Athanasius (1601 – 1680)
A learned Jesuit who published a treatise on Noah’s Ark and the effect of the Flood on the
earth’s land surfaces. Kircher made a number of scientific studies which anticipated later
breakthroughs, including the partial deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphics and the germ theory of
disease. He invented a magic lantern, an aeolian harp, and other devices. Kircher wrote thirtynine
Kirwan, Richard (1733 – 1812)
Kirwan was an Irish attorney, chemist and mineralogist, President of the Royal Irish Academy for
twenty-three years and author of the first systematic treatise on mineralogy, also making
contributions to chemistry. He advocated Flood geology.
Klotz, John William (1918 – 1996)
Geneticist, Concordia Senior College Fort Wayne, Indiana. Received his doctorate in Biology
from the University of Pittsburgh. His professional associations included the American Genetic
Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Nature Conservatory,
and Hastings Center, the National Association of Biology Teachers, the American Association for
Higher Education, the Illinois Academy of Science, and the Lutheran Academy of Scholarship.
Klotz was listed in the American Men of Science. St. Louis Seminary Professor. Biology Professor
for 33 years. Awarded the honorary Doctor of Divinity Degree in 1986 by Concordia Theological
Kronecker, Leopold (1823 – 1891)
In mathematical physics, the Kronecker delta function is named in his honor. He made
important contributions in the theory of algebra, elliptic functions and calculus.
Lammerts, Walter E. (1904 – 1996)
The Father of Modern Rose Breeding. Ph.D. in Genetics and Plant Breeding. Lammerts was
Director of Research for the Germain Seed Company, Livermore, California. He was former
Assistant Professor of Ornamental Horticulture from 1940 to 1945 at the University of California,
Los Angeles where he begun his work with New Zealand Tea Plants and mountain lilacs (in
which he developed “Sierra Blue” and Mountain Haze”. Graduate of the University of California
Institute of Technology at Berkeley, majoring in entomology, he received a Bachelor of Science
Degree in 1927 as an undergraduate and receiving his Ph.D. there in Genetics in 1930.
Lammerts had won many honors and prizes for his work, especially in rose breeding as well as in
camellias and other plants. He held fourteen “All American” awards and one “Queen Elizabeth”
which is regarded as being the most beautiful rose developed. The Organization of World Rose
Societies at their fourth world convention (Rosafari 79) selected his famous Queen Elizabeth as
the world’s favorite rose. Lammerts also developed the “Chrysler Imperial” and “Bewitched”.
Chrysler Corporation gave him a new Chrysler Imperial automobile, carefully painted the same
color as the rose. From 1930 to 1932 he was a Fellow of the National Research Council at
California Institute of Technology. From 1935 to 1940 he was actively engaged in the breeding
and development of roses and peaches for Armstrong Nurseries, Ontario, California
and developed a research program dealing with a wide range of nursery problems. At this time he
developed his most successful peach variety, the “Robin” peach and his famous Charlotte
Armstrong rose. In 1945 he accepted the position of Horticultural Consultant for the publisher
of the Los Angeles Daily News. Lammerts helped plan the “Descanso Gardens in Flower-park of
La Canada, near Los Angeles. In the park is a rose garden which he created, showing the history
of the rose with living specimens developed from 1500 A.D. to the present. Lammerts developed
two lilac hybrids “Lavender Lady” and “Sierra Snow” and Leptospermum hybrid “Ruby Glow”. He
developed two thornless varieties of the Pyracantha shrub and many many others. Lammerts
membership in technical and honorary societies included Phi Beta Kappa, Society of the Sigma
Xi, the Botanical Society of America, the American Pomological Society, numerous plant breeding
societies. He was listed in American Men of Science. Lammerts had authored articles on a variety
of subjects and there are at least 50 scientific papers to his credit.
Leavitt, Henrietta Swan (1868 – 1921)
Leavitt spent her life working at the Harvard College Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
She discovered four new novae and catalogued more then 2400 variable stars. Leavitt had a
special interest in Cepheid variable stars. She calibrated the distance method.
Leeuwenhoek, Antonie van (1632 – 1723)
Leeuwenhoek was a Dutch scientist who spent years designing and building microscopes. He
was able to magnify images as much as 500 times, an achievement unsurpassed until the
1800’s. Leeuwenhoek discovered Bacteria and Spermatozoa. He dedicated much of his life to
proving that the spontaneous origin of life was impossible.
Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1646 – 1716)
Leibnitz was one of the most gifted mathematicians and philosopher. He was co-discoverer with
Newton of calculus. Leibnitz introduced the binary notational system and anticipated the Boolean
system of logic and energy conservation. He made many other scientific and mathematical
contributions, but is best known for his theodicy, a philosophical and theological study attempting
to prove that this is the best of all possible worlds. Leibnitz founded and served as first President
of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.
Le Moine, Paul (1878 – 1940)
Naturalist. Curator/Director of the National Museum in Paris, the Museum d’ Histoire, as well as
past President of the Geological Society of France. Chief Editor of the Encyclopedia Francaise,
1937 edition. Described evolution as “a sort of dogma in which its priests do not believe, but
which they uphold before the people”.
Linnaeus, Carolus von (1707 – 1778)
Swedish botanist. Established the scientific discipline of Systematic Biology (Taxonomy).
Linnaeus carefully arranged six thousand species, using his binomial nomenclature, into genera,
establishing the names still used today. He laid down the principles and nomenclature we still use
today to define genera and species. In 1735 he wrote his “Systema Naturae”.
Lister, Joseph (1827 – 1912)
English surgeon who established the scientific discipline of antiseptic surgery. Lister made
notable contributions in surgery and founded what would later become the Lister Institute of
Preventive Medicine in London. He was President of both the Royal Society and the British
Association for the Advancement of Science. Lister was raised as a Quaker and attended
Quaker schools in Hertfordshire and London. He obtained a Bachelor of Arts Degree at the
University of London in 1847. He qualified as a doctor in 1850. Lister obtained Bachelor’s
Degrees in Medicine and Surgery and in the process won two university gold medals for his
outstanding marks. He passed the examination to become a Fellow of the Royal College of
Surgeons (FRCS) in 1852. Lister was Assistant Professor at Edinburgh, Scotland. He became a
Fellow of the Royal Society in 1860. He also became Professor of Surgery at Glasgow in that
year. In 1869 he returned to Edinburgh to become Professor of Clinical Surgery. In 1883, Queen
Victoria honored him making him Sir Joseph Lister. In 1897, he was given the title Lord Lister
of Lyme Regis. In 1902 Lister was given the Order of Merit and made a Privy Councillor. He was
Vice President of the Royal College of Surgeons. Lister invented the aortic tourniquet, the sinus
forceps and the wire needle.
Lord, David N. (1791 – 1880)
Lord was Editor of “The Theological and Literary Journal” and was well read.
Lumsden, Richard D. (1938 – 1997)
Dr. Lumsden was a world-renowned expert on parasitology and cell biology. He had
authored over ninety peer-reviewed papers, mostly in parasitological journals often describing
new species and presented over one hundred abstracts. He was a senior partner in Lumsden,
Allen and Associates, a medical and biotech consulting firm. Lumsden was former Professor of
Biology (for 23 years) and Dean (1976 to 1977) of the Graduate School at Tulane University. He
served on the Faculty at the Institute for Creation Research and the Master’s College (1990 to
1996) as Biology Chairman and teaching courses in Cellular and Molecular Biology, and
Pathology. Lumsden had a Bachelor of Science Degree and a Master of Science Degree in
Zoology from Tulane University, a traineeship in Cell Biology and electron microscopy at Harvard,
a Ph.D. in Biology from Rice University, and a Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship in Medical
Pathology from the Tulane University School of Medicine. He had received numerous honors,
twenty scholarships, fellowships and research grants and contracts from such organizations as
the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Food & Drug
Administration. Dr. Lumsden won the Career Development Award from the National Institute of
Health and the Henry Baldwin Ward medal, the highest award in parasitology. He served on the
editorial board of Experimental Parasitology, the Journal of Parasitology, Zeitschrift fur
Parasitenkunde, and Parasitology Research. Lumsden was also a peer reviewer for several
technical societies and publishers and was editor of Therapeia from 1988 to 1992. He was a
member of the American Society of Zoologists, the American Society of Parasitologists, the
American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Society for Cell Biology, the New York
Academy of Sciences, the Helminthological Society of Washington, the Southwestern Association
of Parasitologists, the Louisiana Society for Electron Microscopy, the Electron Microscopy Society
of America, the American Association of University Professors and Sigma Xi.
Lunn, Sir Arnold (1888 – 1974)
A noted English writer and apologist, and Catholic author. He is recognized as the Father of
modern skiing. He attended Harrow from 1902 to 1907. Lunn then attended Balliol College from
1907 to 1911. He was secretary to the Union at Oxford and Editor of ‘The Isis”. He wrote “Is
Evolution Proved? – A Debate between Douglas Dewar & H.S. Shelton in 1947 and Science and
the Supernatural in 1935.
Luther, Martin (1483 – 1546)
Born of German peasant parents, Luther grew to be an intensely disciplined and studious young
man. Renouncing worldly comforts, he became an Augustinian monk and later a Professor of
Biblical Literature at the University of Wittenberg. He wrote a “Commentary on Genesis”.
Lyonnet, Pierre (1706 – 1789)
Lyonnet was born in the Netherlands. A pioneer entomologist, he wrote an entire book about
caterpillars. He debate those who promoted spontaneous generation.
MacAlister, Alexander (1844 – 1919)
Professor of Anatomy at the University of Cambridge for many years and author of many
important textbooks in zoology and physiology.
Maclaurin, Colin (1698 – 1746)
As an outstanding mathematician, he was invited to join the British Royal Society at the age of
21. The Maclaurin series, a special case of the Taylor series, is used universally in modern
mathematics to expand functions. He published an article about Isaac Newton.
Marsh, Frank Lewis (1899 – 1992)
General Biologist, Educator, and Author. Marsh graduated valedictorian in 1921 from Fox River
Academy. He received the Bachelor of Arts Degree in 1925 and a Bachelor of Science Degree in
1929 from Emmanuel Missionary College (now Andrews University), Berrien Springs, Michigan.
Marsh received a Master of Science Degree in Zoology with a major in animal ecology from
Northwestern University in 1935 and his Ph.D. in Botany (plant ecology major) by the University
of Nebraska in 1940. He had mainly been a teacher of biology (five years at the secondary level
and thirty eight years at the college and graduate levels). Marsh served as Assistant Professor,
then as Professor heading the Biology Department at Union College, Lincoln, Nebraska. The
remainder of his active teaching in biology was at Andrews University, also serving six years as a
research worker in the Geoscience Research Institute. Marsh was most widely known in scientific
circles through his writings on insect parasitism and hyperparasitism; insect food-chain
relationships and insect life cycles. He was the author of a number of books. He was listed in
American Men and Women of Science and was an active member of Sigma Xi.
Marston, Sir Charles (1867 – 1946)
Past President of the Evolution Protest Movement of England. Marston was an eminent British
Archaeologist and was Vice President of the British School of Archaeology in Egypt. He was also
a member of the Executive of the Palestine Exploration Fund and Collaborator with Professor
Garstang in the excavation of Jericho.
Mather, Cotton (1662 – 1727)
Mather was President of Harvard. Mather studied medicine. He was the first American to publish
original contributions in science, with many publications in the Transactions of the Royal Society.
Among other things, he studied “animalcales” as a cause of smallpox and was effective in routing
it from the colonies.
Mather, Increase (1639 – 1723)
Mather was an avid vocational astronomer and promoter of science in the colonies. He was the
primary founder of the Philosophical Society and one of the first presidents of Harvard. Mather
diligently studied comets and wrote a number of monographs on them.
Maunder, Edward H. (1851 – 1928)
Prominent British astronomer who was a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, as well as
founder and president of the British Astronomical Association. Maunder was in charge of the
Solar Department of the Greenwich Observatory and the outstanding authority on solar
astronomy of his day. He authored many books, both technical and popular. Maunder served six
years as Secretary of the Victoria Institute. In 1893 he discovered the 1645-1715 Maunder
sunspot minimum. In 1904, Maunder plotted the first sunspot “butterfly diagram”.
Maupertuis, Pierre Louis de (1698 – 1759)
Maupertuis distinguished himself in mathematics, physics, and biology. He was an early president
of the French Academy of Science. He did initial studies on the principle of least action which
describes a tendency of nature to function in the most efficient way possible.
Maury, Mathew Fontaine (1806 – 1873)
“Pathfinder of the Seas”. Maury is considered the father of the sciences of hydrography,
meteorology, and oceanography. He was the superintendent in charge of the Depot of Charts and
Instruments in the Hydrographic Office of the U.S. Navy (later to become the Naval Observatory)
from 1841 to 1861. Maury was awarded a Master of Arts Degree from the University of North
Carolina in 1847 and a Doctor of Laws Degree in 1852. Columbia University awarded him a
Doctor of Laws Degree in 1854 and Cambridge University honored him with a Doctor of Letters in
1868. He was an honorary member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Russia, the Royal
Academy of Sciences, Letters and Fine Arts of Belgium, and Associate of the Royal Astronomical
Society of England as well as over forty other societies, including those from the countries of
Denmark, Germany, Portugal, Belgium, Russia, France, Czechoslovakia and the Papal states.
Maury received the Gold Medal of Science and the Kosmos Medal from the King of Prussia. His
latter years was spent as Professor of Meteorology at the Virginia Military Institute.
Maxwell, James Clerk (1831 – 1879)
Established the scientific discipline of Electrodynamics and Statistical Thermodynamics. Maxwell
developed a comprehensive theoretical and mathematical framework of electromagnetic field
theory. He extended classical thermodynamics into the broader field of statistical thermodynamics
and made many other notable contributions in physics and mathematics. Maxwell was the first
to produce color photography. He was the Director of the Cavendish Laboratory; he was also
science editor of the Encyclopedia Britannica. In 1841 he began formal schooling at the
Edinburgh Academy. His first scientific paper – a mathematical analysis involving the ellipse was
published in 1846 (when he was fifteen years old at the time.) In 1847 (then sixteen years old)
Maxwell entered the University of Edinburgh and soon published two more scientific papers. In
1850, he enrolled at Cambridge University, graduating four years later with first class honors in
Mathematics. He was also awarded a prestigious prize for original research in mathematically
analyzing the stability of Saturn’s Rings. After graduating, Maxwell joined the staff at Cambridge
University, lecturing on optics and hydrostatics as well as doing research in these areas. In 1856
he was appointed as Professor of Physics at Marischal College in Aberdeen. In 1860, he
became Professor of Physics & Astronomy at King’s College in London. Here he supervised the
measurement & standardization of electrical units for the British Association for the Advancement
of Science in 1863. He also made significant advances in the area of optics and color vision. His
research on color blindness was recognized when he was awarded the Rumford Medal by
the Royal Society of London. He also undertook research relating to elastic solids & pure
geometry. Maxwell was elected to the Royal Society in 1861 as a result of his early work on
electromagnetism. In 1871, he became Professor of experimental physics at Cambridge
University. He was able to mathematically disprove the Nebular Hypothesis proposed by
Laplace in 1796.
McCandless, William (1921 – 2002)
Dr. McCandless was an Institute for Creation Research Board of Trustees Member and its
Executive Committe member since 1980. He was a graduate of the University of California, Los
Angeles Medical School and had served in the Navy during World War Two. Dr. McCandless was
a skilled and highly regarded obstetrician and gynecologist. He had been on a local school board
member and had been appointed to the state school board by then governor, Ronald Reagan.
Mendel, Gregor (1822 – 1884)
Austrian monk who established the scientific discipline of Genetics.
Mersenne, Marin (1588 – 1648)
Mersenne advanced the study of acoustics, mechanics, and optics. In 1634 he discovered the
well-known law that the period of a pendulum varies as the square root of its length. He also
described the mathematical details of the cycloid curve. He wrote Questions in Genesis in 1623.
Michell, John (1724 – 1793)
English physicist, geologist, and Father of Seismology. Michell invented the torsion balance. He
set up the first laboratory experiment to accurately measure the force of gravitation. Michell made
contributions to Astronomy. He also demonstrated radiation pressure by the deflection of a thin
suspended copper sheet on which light was shown. He wrote a “Treatise of Artificial Magnets” in
Miller, Hugh (1802 – 1856)
Scottish Geologist. He wrote on ‘The Old Red Sandstone’ in 1841 and a book on the testimony of
Miller, Samuel (1770 – 1840)
Miller wrote a definitive and very influential history of the scientific advances in the eighteenth
century, strongly defending flood geology and a recent creation. He was Professor of
Ecclesiastical History and Church Government at Princeton Theological Seminary.
Milne, Edward Arthur (1896 – 1950)
Milne was a Mathematician teaching at Oxford University. He wrote the book “Modern Cosmology
and the Christian Idea of God.”
Mitchell, Maria (1818 – 1889)
Mitchell was the first woman astronomer in America. Her discovery of Comet Mitchell in 1847
called attention to the role of American women in science. She was educated chiefly by her
father, then enjoyed a distinguished career as an astronomy professor at Vassar College in New
Mivart, St. George Jackson (1827 – 1900)
English Biologist. His comprehensive text on the anatomy of the cat guided generations of
students. He was a Catholic convert and in 1876, Pope Pius IX conferred on him the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
Morgan, Augustus De (1806 – 1871)
Morgan was a world-class Mathematician who founded symbolic logic. He attended Trinity
College in England.
Morris, Andrew Hunter (1949 – 1989)
Dr. Morris was Assistant Professor of Management Information Science at Florida State
University. He was also Adjunct Assistant Professor of Statistics and Computer Science in the
Institute for Creation Research’s Graduate School.
Morse, Jedidiah (1761 – 1826)
Leading Geographer of America during his lifetime. Morse wrote the first American textbook of
geography, almost universally used in the schools of the day, going through twenty-five editions.
He was a strong advocate of flood geology and recent creation.
Morse, Samuel F. B. (1791 – 1872)
Famous American known for inventing the telegraph. Morse was educated at Yale, graduated
in 1810, served for twenty years as the founder and first President of the National Acadmey of
Design. In 1831, he was appointed Professor of Sculpture and Painting at New York University,
the first chair of fine arts in America, and made the world’s first photographic portrait. Morse
developed the first working model of an electric telegraph in 1835. He developed the ‘Morse
Code.” In 1843 he persuaded the U.S. Congress to fund the building of a telegraph line between
Baltimore and Washington D.C. It was completed on May 24, 1844.
Mulfinger, George L. (1932 – 1987)
Physicist and Astronomer. Mulfinger had a Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry from
Syracuse University and a Master of Science Degree in Physics from the University of Georgia.
He was Professor of Physics & Physical Sciences at Bob Jones University. Mulfinger had been
engaged in eclipse and comet observations. He was co-author of a high-school Physical Science
textbook. Mulfinger did graduate work in the physical sciences at Syracuse, Harvard, and
the University of Georgia. In later years he added astronomy, geology and philosophy to his
teaching expertise. He initiated research work on rapid CaCO3 deposition.
Murray, John (1808 – 1892)
Publisher of the books of Lyell and Darwin. He wrote many books himself including ‘Skepticism in
Geology’ in 1877.
Nelson, Byron Christopher (1893 – 1972)
Nelson received degrees in both science and theology. He took two years of postgraduate study
in science and philosophy at Wisconsin and Rutgers, then later his Th.M. from Princeton
Seminary. He wrote ‘The Deluge Story in Stone’ in 1931 and ‘After Its Kind’ in 1927.
Newton, Isaac (1642 – 1727)
Established the scientific discipline of calculus, dynamics, developed the laws of gravity and
invented the reflecting telescope. He attended school at King’s College in Grantham, England. He
graduated from Trinity College at Cambridge University in 1665, his Masters Degree in 1667,
while teaching and doing research. Newton was elected President of the Royal Society in 1703.
He was the first person to receive a Knighthood for scientific achievements. He developed the
particle theory of light. Newton wrote many papers and books.
Owen, Sir Richard (1804 – 1892)
Owen wrote many articles and delivered lectures against the idea of natural selection accounting
for the origin of new species (kinds). His scientific specialties were zoology, comparative anatomy
and paleontology. For many years he was Superintendent of the Natural History Department of
the British Museum. He was the discoverer of parathyroid glands and the first to describe the
giant moas of New Zealand. Owen was one of the first dinosaur hunters. He coined the term
“dinosaur”. Owen also discovered the trichinosis parasite. He researched and wrote extensively
on numerous living and extinct animals. Owen retired in 1884 and was Knighted.
Paley, William (1743 – 1805)
Paley wrote the classic “Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the
Deity, Collected from the Appearances of Nature” in 1802.
Pare’, Ambrose (1509 – 1590)
Pare’ was the first modern surgeon. His innovations in surgical procedures earned him a
reputation as the greatest surgeon of his day. He had no scholarly training but learned from his
own research and experience. Pare’ became surgeon to three kings. He was the first to tie veins
and arteries to stop their bleeding. Pare’ demonstrated that many infant’s lives could be saved in
difficult deliveries by turning them (in podalic version).
Parkinson, James (1755 – 1824)
English physician who made a number of significant medical discoveries. These included
recognition of the nature and danger of a perforated appendix, first describing Parkinson’s
disease. Parkinson was also an ardent amateur geologist, the first to recognize the plant origin of
coal. He wrote extensively on a worldwide flood and its geological effects especially the formation
Pascal, Blaise (1623 – 1662)
The father of hydrodynamics, hydrostatics, and analytic geometry. Major contribution: Actuarial
Tables. In mathematics (when only sixteen years old), he laid the foundation for the modern
treatment of conic sections as well as differential calculus and the mathematical theory of
probability. He developed the barometer. He invented the syringe. Before his teenage years, he
taught himself geometry and before the age of twenty, he invented the first calculating machine.
Pascal demonstrated that air has weight/pressure. The laws of pressures he developed in fluids
led eventually to such advances as the modern car’s hydraulic brakes.
Pasteur, Louis (1822 – 1895)
Established the scientific discipline of Bacteriology; discovered the biogenesis law, fermentation
control, pasteurization, vaccination and immunization. Major contribution: Biogenesis Law.
Pasteur was a physicist and chemist by training and practice and debunked the idea of
spontaneous generation. He received a Bachelor of Science Degree at the Royal College in
Besancon in 1842. He received a Master of Science Degree in Chemistry at E’cole Normale in
1845. The French government honored him with its highest award – the Legion of Honour.
Pasteur developed the first vaccine for cholera. In the years that followed he solved the problems
involved in developing vaccines for anthrax and rabies.
Paulescu, N. C. (1869 – 1931)
A Romanian creationist scientist who discovered insulin. His discovery unfortunately was made in
Romania where there was little exposure to media. A year later in 1921, two Canadians were
credited with the discovery (F.G. Banting and C.H. Best).
Peters, Walter G. (1917 – 1995)
Peters graduated in 1940 majoring in zoology and botany. He received a Master of Science
Degree in Education from Northern Illinois University in 1970. He also had a degree in Geology.
From 1965 to 1973 Peters taught Physical Geology and Geography at Spoon River College,
Canton, Illinois. He had led geology tours to Glacier Park and Alberta, Canada. For his
extensive work on labeling rocks and fossils from Archaeozoic to Mississippian; Permian to
Pleistocene to Recent he had been included in the 1993 – 1994 Who’s Who in America.
Pettigrew, John Bell (1834 – 1908)
Anatomist and Physiologist. Author of a well known nineteenth century treatise which was a
real classic in his field. Pettigrew amassed a tremendous amount of evidence for design. He was
one of the outstanding anatomists and physiologists of the nineteenth century, serving as
president of the Royal Medical Society and authoring over fifteen significant volumes in his
disciplines. He wrote ‘Design in Nature”.
Petty, Sir William (1623 – 1687)
Petty was one of the first members of the Royal Society. He helped to found the science of
statistics and the modern study of economics. He practiced medicine successfully and served
many years as a public official. Petty wrote many papers showing evidence of design in nature.
Pierce, Charles Sanders (1839 – 1914)
Pierce made mathematical contributions in many areas. He studies associative algebra,
the theory of aggregates, transfinite arithmetic, and probability.
Pluche, Abbe’ (1688 – 1761)
The Abbe’ Pluche was born at Riems. He was Professor in the College of Riems. Pluche wrote
Histoire du Ciel and Spectacle de la Nature (The Spectacle of Nature).
Pratt, Joseph Henry (1809 – 1871)
Pratt made early studies of the exact mathematical shape of the earth. His analysis led to the
oblate shape. He correctly calculated the earth’s radius and the processional motion of its axis.
Prestwich, Joseph B. (1812 – 1896)
Prestwich was appointed to the chair of geology at Oxford. He wrote ‘A Geological Inquiry
Respecting the Water-Bearing Strata of the Country around London in 1851 and ‘Geology:
Chemical, Physical and Stratigraphical in 1886 and 1888 (two volumes).
Price, George McCready (1870 – 1963)
Self taught flood geologist. Price received a Bachelor of Arts Degree from Loma Linda College in
1912. He had two years training at Battle Creek College in classics and theology and a teacher’s
training course at the Normal School in New Brunswick. He was Professor of Philosophy and
Geology at Walla Walla College, College Place, Washington. He was also Professor of Geology
at Union College, Nebraska. He taught Latin, Greek, Chemistry, Physics, and Geology. In 1925,
Price received the Victoria Institute’s prize for the best paper published in its Proceedings that
year. He wrote thirty eight books
Prokhovnik, Simon Jacques (1920 – 1994)
Prokhovnik received a M.Sc. degree from the University of Melbourne. He was Professor of
Mathematics at the University of New South Wales and was Emeritus Professor since 1981. He
worked for many years as a biochemist/bacteriologist, then as a mathematically-oriented
industrial chemist, before joining the staff of the School of Mathematics at the University of New
Prout, William (1785 – 1850)
Authored one of the Bridgewater Treatises. As a chemist and physiologist, he was an early leader
in the sciences of nutrition and digestion and was first to identify basic foodstuffs: fats, proteins,
carbohydrates. He is best known for recognizing that the atomic weights of elements could be
identified as a series of relative whole numbers. In 1823 he discovered the existence of free
hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
Rayleigh, Lord (John William Strutt) (1842 – 1919)
Established the scientific discipline of dimensional analysis. Raleigh was the successor to
Maxwell at Cambridge and continued his studies on the electromagnetic wave motions, making
note worthy contributions in optics, sonics and gas dynamics. He was also the co-discoverer of
Argon and the inert gases. Raleigh was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1904. A strong
believer in the Flood.
Ramsay, William (1852 – 1916)
Established the Scientific Discipline of Isotopic Chemistry. Co-discoverer of argon and other inert
gases. His discovery of terrestrial helium on the earth led him to study radioactive decay
processes, and he was the first to demonstrate an actual transmutation of elements (radium
into helium) by these processes, which later led to isotopic chemistry. In 1898 he found neon,
krypton and xenon. He received the Nobel prize in 1904 after successfully demonstrating the
radioactive decay of one element into another. He later discovered radon, and showing it to be
the last in the series of rare gases.
Ramsay, William Mitchell (1851 – 1939)
Among the greatest of all archaeologists. Ramsay was author of over twenty books. He also
served as Professor at Oxford and Aberdeen Universities.
Rawlinson, Sir Henry (1810 – 1895)
One of the greatest archeologists. Originally an English military man stationed in India, he is best
known for his remarkable feat of exposing and deciphering the Behistun inscriptions of the
Persian emperor Darius, written on the face of a great scarp in three ancient languages – old
Persian, Assyrian and Elamitic. This accomplishment opened the way to a real understanding of
the ancient history of the Near and Middle East. First to decipher cuneiform writing (the great
cuneiform inscription at Bisitun, written by Darius I). His excavations resulted in the discovery of
many valuable Babylonian antiquities, which he donated to the British Museum.
Ray, John (1627 – 1705)
The founder of Biology and Natural History. Ray made extensive collections and catalogs of
English flora. One of the founding Fellow members of the Royal Society. He was the greatest
authority of his day in both botany and zoology. Ray was a creationist, writing a number of books
on natural theology. He entered Trinity College at Cambridge University at the age of sixteen.
Ray obtained his Masters Degree in 1651 and stayed on at Trinity College as Lecturer. He was
the first to classify according to species. Ray published the first complete guidelines for
Reed, Walter (1851 – 1902)
Reed was an outstanding medical officer in the U.S. Army. His bacteriological and viral research
helped conquer typhoid and yellow fevers, saving untold thousands of lives. While stationed in
Havana, Cuba, his studies showed that mosquitoes were the cause of the yellow fever. The
Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington D.C. is named in his honor of him.
Rehwinkel, Alfred M. (1887 – 1979)
Rehwinkel was Professor of Theology at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri. He was a
student of geology at the University of Alberta. Rehwinkel taught physical geography at
Concordia College at Edmonton, Alberta. He had a Master of Arts Degree in Geology from the
University of Alberta. Author of early creationist book, “The Flood.”
Rendle-Short, John Arthur (1885 – 1953)
Rendle-Short was emeritus professor of child health at the University of Queensland, Australia for
twenty-four years. He was awarded the Order of Australia Gold Medal in 1985 from the University
of London. He was past president of Christian Medical Fellowship of Australia and was Professor
of Surgery at the University of Bristol for many years. Rendle-Short was made a member of the
Order of Australia for services in medicine and infantile autism. He wrote a number of excellent
Riemann, Bernhard (1826 – 1866)
German Mathematician. Riemann established the scientific discipline of Non-Euclidean
Geometry. He was a student of theology and Hebrew. His mathematical concepts were
influenced by the physical problems he dealt with while at the Goltingen Physics Laboratory. He
was a prodigy in Mathematics.
Riley, William Bell (1861 – 1947)
Riley received a Master of Arts Degree from Hanover College, Indiana in 1888. He wrote a forty
volume Exposition of the Bible.
Rimmer, Harry (1890 – 1952)
Self-made scientist. One year each at Hahneman College of Homeopathic Medicine, San
Francisco Bible College, Whittier College, and the Bible Institute of Los Angeles. Rimmer was
awarded two honorary doctorates, a D.Sc. by Wheaton College and a L1D by John Brown
University. Rimmer was listed in Who’s Who in America. He began the Research Science
Bureau in 1921. Rimmer became a part of the World Christian Fundamentalist Association.
Rodd, Thomas (1796 – 1849)
Rodd wrote “A Defense of the Veracity of Moses” in 1820.
Rogers, Henry (1808 – 1866)
An American Geologist well known for his studies of the geology of the Appalachians & also the
coal fields of America and Great Britian. For the last nine years of his life he was Professor of
Natural History and Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. He believed in a worldwide flood
with great geological significance and was one of the signers of the 1864-1865 Scientists
Roget, Peter Mark (1779 – 1869)
English physician and physiologist, one of the founders of the University of London and the
Medical School at Manchester. He is best known for his famous “Roget’s Thesaurus”. Roget also
authored one of the famous Bridgewater Treatises. His wide interests and varied
accomplishments also took him into the field of Mathematics and Lexicography. He invented the
“log-log” slide rule. Roget established the charity clinic (The Northern Dispensary), which he
served as physician for eighteen years. Roget made the forerunner of the motion picture
invention. He also devised the first pocket chess set in 1845.
Romanes, George (1848 – 1894)
Canadian born naturalist and author of many books. Romanes was a gifted biologist and
physiologist. He was a student of Mathematics and Natural Science at Cambridge. Romanes was
a scientist who abandoned his Christianity on becoming a close personal friend at Charles
Darwin, but regained his faith in the last few months of his short life.
Ross, Ronald (1857 – 1932)
Ross was an English Physician and poet. He was the first researcher to locate the malarial
parasite in the Anopheles mosquito, in 1897. This discovery demonstrated how malaria was
transmitted, and it quickly led to widespread control of the disease. Ross was awarded the 1902
Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work on malaria infections.
Rusch, Wilbert H. (1913 – 1994)
Rusch received a Diploma from Concordia Teachers College in 1931. He received a Bachelor of
Science Degree in Physical Sciences from the Illinois Institute of Technology in 1934. Rusch
received a Master of Science Degree in Biology from the University of Michigan in 1952 and later
studied Geology at the University of Nebraska. Rusch earned the Sp.Sc. degree in Science
from Eastern Michigan University in 1969. He was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws
(L.L.D.) from Concordia Seminary in 1975. Rusch was Assistant Professor at
Concordia Teachers College, Seward, from 1932 to 1933; Instructor and Associate Professor at
Concordia College, Fort Wayne in science and math from 1937 to 1957; He taught part time at
Purdue University in Chemistry and Electronics from 1947 to 1949 and was a teacher at Lutheran
Hospital School of Nursing from 1949 to 1953 teaching chemistry and anatomy. Rusch was
Professor at Concordia Teachers College, Seward teaching biology, geology, physics, and math
from 1957 to 1963. He was Professor, acting President, and academic dean at Concordia
College, Ann Arbor beginning in 1963. Rusch spent almost thirty-five years teaching science.
Rusch authored chapters in seven creation symposium volumes and was the author of many
scientific articles. He was very knowledgeable on the topic of fossil men, having done
considerable research in that area. Rusch had been a member of the National Association
of Biology Teachers (Nebraska State Membership Chairman, from 1958 to 1963, the National
Teachers Association and the National Association of Geology Teachers. He served on the Board
of Directors of the Nebraska Academy of Science from 1959 to 1963. He had membership in the
National Association of Biology Teachers from 1952 to 1979. From 1964 to 1980 Rusch
was a member of the National Association of Geology Teachers. He received the esteemed
Christus Primus award.
Rush, Benjamin (1745 – 1813)
Pioneered chemistry & medical studies in early America. In 1769 he was appointed to the school
known today as the University of Pennsylvania Medical College. He specialized in diseases of the
arterial system and also was a pioneer in explaining mental disorders. While training some three
thousand medical students during a forty-four year career, Rush was known as the leading
physician in the United States. He was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence.
Rutherford, Lord Ernest (1871 – 1937)
At age 15 he won a scholarship to Nelson College. He won scholarships and prizes for
Latin, French, English Literature, History, Physics and Chemistry. In 1889 he won a scholarship
to Canterbury College, a part of the University of New Zealand. He excelled in all his subjects and
did some original research. Rutherford was awarded a scholarship to do research at the
Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge in 1895. In 1896 he was granted the first patent in wireless
telemetry. In 1898, at 27 years of age, Rutherford was appointed Director of the Physics
Laboratory at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. In his ten years there he published no less
than one hundred papers in scientific journals. In 1907 he became head of the new lab at the
University of Manchester in England. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908.
Sayce, Archibald Henry (1845 – 1933)
English philologist and archaeologist. A long-time Professor at Oxford, Sayce was the foremost
Assyriologist of all time, as well as an expert on the Hittites. He authored over twenty-five major
books in his fields.
Schaeffer, Francis A. (1912 – 1984)
Schaeffer graduated from Hampden-Sydney College in 1935 and in the same year entered
Westminster Theological Seminary. In 1937, Schaeffer was involved in the foundation of the Faith
Theological Seminary. In 1968 he published his first book ‘The God Who is There’. Perhaps no
other Christian thinker of the 20th century, aside from C.S. Lewis, has had as significant an
impact on the lives of others. He challenged everyone to think. You could agree or disagree
with him, but you could not ignore him. His most enduring legacy was perhaps his vision of the
vast difference between the world that God designed and the world that is the work of our
Scheuchzer, Johann Jacob (1672 – 1733)
Scheuchzer was a highly respected Swiss physician and naturalist. He began his university
career at Altdorf in 1692. In addition to holding chairs in natural history and mathematics, he was
a medical doctor, an editor, an assiduous collector of fossils, and the author of scores of books on
natural history. In 1702 he compiled an encyclopedic list of dragon sightings in the Alps.
Schneider, Frank L. (1907 – 1992)
A pioneer in microbiology, Schneider helped establish the techniques of microchemistry in the
United States. He had written seven textbooks and dozens of articles that were published in
scientific publications. Schneider was the recipient of the first A.A. Benedetti-Pichler Award by the
American Microchemical Society for outstanding contributions to his field. He also did consulting
for corporations on air and water purification equipment. Schneider also taught at New York
University, Rutgers, Trinity College, Long Island University and the New York Institute of
Schutzenberger, Marcel-Paul (1920 – 1996)
Schutzenberger was a remarkable figure in the intellectual life of the late 20th century. Within the
community of mathematicians, he was well known for his fundamental and prophetic contributions
to combinatorics, automata and coding theory, mathematical linguistics, the theory of
noncommunative semigroups and many areas of algebra. His most recent mathematical work
was relevant to the theory of quantum groups. A man of endless curiosity, Schutzenberger was
the first scientist of his stature publicly to question Darwin’s theory of evolution, raising questions
at the Wistar Symposium of 1967 about life and chance that biologists didn’t understand and that
mathematicians couldn’t answer. His criticisms were remarkable both for their subtlety and for the
courage required to make them. In an interview published shortly before he died, he expanded
upon his views, arguing with characteristic force and wit that while the mechanism of random
variation and natural selection is credited with almost everything, it explains almost nothing, the
theory’s claims neatly canceled by its failures. Those who knew him remember him as a man of
wit and penetrating intelligence: they remember a man of uncommon forbearance and personal
dignity. His mathematical work will preserve his memory. His criticism of Darwin’s theory of
evolution will preserve his spirit.
Sedgwick, Adam (1785 – 1873)
English geologist; long-time Professor of Geology at Cambridge, especially famous for identifying
and naming the Cambrian and Devonian.
Seiss, Joseph (1823 – 1904)
Seiss was a United States Lutheran Preacher who resided in Philadelphia. He wrote a
commentary on Revelation. He also wrote ‘The Gospel in the Stars’ in 1877.
Silliman, Benjamin (1779 – 1864)
Silliman was Head of the Geology Department of Yale University and had graduated from Yale.
He was America’s outstanding mineralogist and geologist at the time. Silliman founded the
Sheffield Scientific School at Yale, as well as the influential American Journal of Science, still one
of the world’s leading geological journals. He was the first president of the Association of
American Geologists and a charter member of the National Academy of Sciences. Silliman was
Professor of Chemistry and Natural History at Yale from 1802 through 1853.
Simpson, James Y. (1811 – 1870)
Founder of Anesthesiology. Simpson established the scientific discipline of Gynecology. He
was Professor of Obstetric Medicine at Edinburgh University, laying the foundation to
anesthesiology. Simpson discovered chloroform in 1847.
Smyth, Charles Piazzi (1819 – 1900)
Smyth was Astronomer Royal for Scotland and Professor of Astronomy at the University
of Edinburgh. He also made extensive studies at the Great Pyramid in Egypt and became a
founder and leader in pyramidology and Anglo-Israelism. Smyth published many significant
studies on astronomy and meteorology.
Stahl, George Ernst (1660 – 1734)
Greatly influenced 18th century medicine. Stahl correctly taught that many ailments were being
attributed to wrong causes. He stated that normal blood circulation was essential to maintaining
good health. Today it’s difficult to realize how revolutionary this idea was. Stahl taught that no one
could fully explain details such as the extent of the heavens, or why so many different animal
species exist. In his view these answers existed only in the mind and will of God.
Starling, Ernest Henry (1866 – 1927)
Starling published a paper in 1902 designating the term “hormones” for the first time. He
wrote ‘Principles of Human Physiology’ in 1912.
Steno, Nicolaus (1631 – 1686)
A distinguished scientist, geologist and anatomist. Steno discovered the circulation of blood in the
human body and the excretory duct of the parotid glands. He discovered the laws of
crystallography known as the law of constancy of interfacial angles and established the scientific
discipline of stratigraphy. In 1656, Steno went to the University of Cophenhagen to study anatomy
and become a physician. He studied further in Amsterdam and Leyden in Holland.
Stewart, Balfour (1828 – 1887)
Stewart was a Scottish physicist. He is best known for his work on the magnetic field, especially
the upper atmosphere electrical currents, which led to the discovery of the ionosphere. Stewart
was Professor of Physics at Owen’s College.
Stine, Charles (1882 – 1954)
For many years Stine was Director of Research for the DuPont Company. He received a Ph.D. in
Chemistry from John Hopkins University. As an organic chemist with many degrees and honors,
he developed many new products and patents for his company. Stine was a man of top eminence
in his field. He spoke frequently to scientific and university audiences.
Stokes, Sir George (1819 – 1903)
Stokes was a great British physicist and mathematician, making major contributions in many
fields. He established the scientific discipline of fluid mechanics. Stokes held the Chair as
Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University. He was Secretary and President of the Royal
Society. Stokes wrote many papers and he advanced our knowledge of light,
sound, hydrodynamics, and mathematics. He provided the first explanation of the phenomenon
Swammerdam, Jan (1637 – 1680)
Carried out lifelong studies of insects found in Europe. Swammerdam opposed the idea of
spontaneous generation. He was the first scientist to study and describe red blood cells in his
‘Bible of Nature’.
Sydenham, Thomas (1624 – 1689)
Discoverer of Malaria’s cure, quinine, (from the bark of the cinchona tree). He more than anyone
else in the 17th century, helped to bring the scientific method into medicine. Sydenham made
great advances in the treatment of measles, smallpox, gout and many other diseases. His careful
groundwork laid the foundation for the later scientific understanding of infectious diseases and
their successful treatment.
Tait, Peter Guthrie (1831 – 1901)
Tait was a Scottish physicist and mathematician who laid the foundation for vector analysis and
other techniques of advanced mathematics and mathematical physics. He was Professor of
Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh and collaborated with Lord Kelvin on the
development of the key concepts of energy and thermodynamics.
Tertullian (155 – 222)
Tertullian was a scholarly famous writer. Tertullian was the first Christian writer to write in Latin.
He wrote ‘Concerning the Pallium’, ‘Apologeticum’, ‘Adversus Praxean’, and De praescriptio
Theodoric of Freibourg (1250 – 1310)
Born in Germany, Theodoric was the discoverer of the rainbow’s cause. He studied in Paris from
1275 to 1277.
Tinkle, William John (1892 – 1981)
In high school his grades were the highest of any in the school. Tinkle started two write for
publications as a high school sophomore. He was awarded the degree of Bachelor of Arts (A.B.
degree) having majored in biology by Manchester College in 1916. Tinkle received a Master of
Arts Degree from Ohio State University in 1927. He received a Ph.D. in Biology/Zoology
from Ohio State in 1932. Tinkle spent a year in Bethany Biblical Seminary in Chicago. He
also attended Marion Normal Institute and the University of Wisconsin. He was Professor
emeritus and Chairman of Biology at Anderson College, Eaton, Indiana, Head of the Science
Division at Taylor University, LaVerne College, Ball State Teachers College, Muncie, Indiana, and
others. Tinkle was active in the American Scientific Affiliation. He had been a member of
the American Genetic Association, the Indiana Academy of Science and the American
Association for the Advancement of Science for many years. Tinkle was listed in American Men
of Science and Leaders in American Education. He had many published scientific articles.
Tocquet, Andreas (1612 – 1660)
Tocquet taught mathematics in several European universities. He originated many theorems,
especially those involving the geometry of cylinders and rings. A master teacher and writer, his
textbooks were used by generations of mathematics students.
Torrey, R. A. (1856 – 1928)
Torrey was well trained academically. He was educated at Yale University and Yale Divinity
School followed by further study in Germany. He wrote ‘The Fundamental Doctrines of the
Christian Faith’ in 1919.
Ukhtomsky, Alexei Alexeivich (1875 – 1942)
Ukhtomsky was named after a river in his Russian province. He studied medicine and became an
outstanding lecturer on physiology in St. Petersburg. In his day he was a world leader in
understanding the functions of the central nervous system.
Ure, Andrew (1778 – 1857)
Ure was one of the top chemists of his day with an international reputation as a meticulous
scientist, a prolific writer and teacher. He was one of those brilliantly versatile men of science
whose understanding of many subjects, was encyclopedic. Ure gained a good working
knowledge of geology by reading the works of leading geologists. He studied first at the
University of Glasgow and later at Edinburgh, obtaining his Master of Arts Degree in 1798-99 and
his M.D. in Glasgow in 1801. After graduation, he served briefly as an Army Surgeon before
settling in Glasgow, where he became a member of the Faculty of Physicians & Surgeons in
1803. In 1804 Ure became Professor of Natural Philosophy (specializing in Chemistry and
Physics at Andersonian Institution (now the University of Strathclyde) in Glasgow. In 1830 he
moved to London and became the first Consulting Chemist in Britian. In 1809 he helped establish
Glasgow Observatory and was appointed its astronomer. He designed, manufactured, and
installed a 14 foot reflecting telescope. Ure was one of the original honorary Fellows of the
Geological Society of London shortly after it was founded in 1807, was an original member of the
Astronomical Society and became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1822. He also became a
member of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Science and the Pharmacological Society of
Northern Germany. He wrote seven books and more than fifty-three scientific journal articles.
Ure was a linguist and a fair Classical Scholar.
Vail, Isaac Newton (1840 – 1912)
Father of the “vapor canopy” idea. Vail was instrumental in various ‘flood geology’ models. He
was a Pennsylvania Quaker schoolteacher, as well as an oil and gas prospector.
Van Til, Cornelius (1895 – 1987)
Van Til received an A.B. degree from Calvin College in 1922. He obtained a Th.B. in 1924 and a
Th.M. in 1925 both from Princeton Theological Seminary. Van Til received a Ph.D. from Princeton
University in 1927. He later received a Th.D. from the University of Potchefstroom, South Africa
and a D.D. from Reformed Episcopal Seminary, Philadelphia. He wrote ‘The Defense of
the Faith’ in 1955 and ‘The Great Debate Today’ in 1971.
Vesalius, Andreas (1514 – 1564)
Studied early medicine in Europe. Vesalius produced several helpful books on human anatomy,
including ‘Fabrica’ in 1543. He began the use of other languages for medical terminology,
especially Latin terms. Many of his choices continue today, such as the names of the three small
bones of the mammalian middle ear, the hammer (maleus), anvil (incus), and stirup (stapes).
Virchow, Rudolph (1821 – 1902)
German pathologist. Virchow established the scientific disciplines of Pathology. He
was responsible for major hospital reforms and public health measures. Virchow was active in
anthropological and archeological research. He was the first to describe leukemia and made
many other important contributions. He was the first to suggest that the morphology of
Neanderthal Man may have been the result of disease such as rickets.
Vladykov, Vadim D. (1898 – 1986)
Vladykov was Dean of Ichthyologists of the world. Throughout his long career he published in
the best journals dealing mainly with various aspects of fish ecology.
Wagner, Johann Andreas (1797 – 1861)
German Paleontologist. Wagner published numerous works concerning the fossils of fish and
reptiles found in Germany. He argued against Archaeopteryx fossil being a transitional form
between lizards and birds, the last year of his life.
Wakeley, Sir Cecil (1892 – 1979)
Biologist and President of the Royal College of Surgeons. Wakeley was President of the
Evolution Protest Movement in England for eighteen years, as well as President of the Bible
League. He was an eminent surgeon having served as Surgeon Rear Admiral in World War Two
and then as Professor of Surgery in the University of London. Wakeley received many honors in
his field of science.
Waksman, Selman Abraham (1888 – 1973)
Waksman was born in Russia. He came to the United States and worked at Rutgers College in
New Jersey and also Woods Hole Laboratories in Massachusetts. His research with antibiotics, a
word which he coined, greatly relieved human suffering. He won the 1952 Nobel Prize in
Medicine. Waksman wrote over four-hundred papers and twenty-eight books.
Wallis, John (1616 – 1703)
Wallis was a mathematics professor at Oxford University in England. His ‘Arithmetica Infinitorum’
contains many original theorems and derivations concerning conic sections. He originated the
use of the ‘lazy eight’ symbol for infinity. Wallis also was the first to suggest the physics law of
conservation of momentum, in 1668. During 1690 to 1692 he published a series of letters.
Walton, Izaak (1593 – 1683)
Izaak Walton is a household name to those who are serious about fishing. His book ‘The
Compleat Angler’ demonstrated his competence as a zoologist. He was a writer and apologist.
Wendelin, Gotfried (1580 – 1667)
Wendelin is known as the Ptolemy of his age. This Flemish astronomer promoted heliocentrism.
He made careful studies of the orbital paths of planets. Wendelin demonstrated in 1626 that the
moons of Jupiter exactly follow Kepler’s laws of motion. He was listed in Isaac Newton’s
‘Principia’ (1687) for contributing to Newton’s understanding of nature.
Whewell, William (1794 – 1866)
Inventor of the Anemometer (measuring wind velocity). Whewell had numerous scientific
contributions. As a philosopher of science, he is best known for his promotion of scientific
inductive methods. He formulated the following terms: scientist, physicist, anode, cathode,
electrode, ion, electrolyte and the geological epochs: Miocene and Pliocene. Whewell was a
Bridgewater Treatise Author.
Whiston, William (1667 – 1752)
Whiston was Professor of Physics/Geology at Cambridge, England. He is known for his
translation of Josephus’s ‘Antiquities’. He wrote ‘A New Theory of the Earth’ in 1696.
White, Andrew Dickson (1832 – 1918)
White was President and Professor of History at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. He was cofounder
of the university with Ezra Cornell in 1868. He wrote ‘A History of the Warfare of Science
with Theology in Christendom’ in 1895 and wrote ‘The Conflict Between Science and Religion’.
Whitney, Dudley Joseph (1894 – 1964)
Whitney received a Bachelor of Science Degree in Agricultural Chemistry from the University of
California, Berkeley in 1907. He was editor of various agricultural journals over a long period of
time. Whitney wrote articles in such publications as The Bible Champion, Christian Faith and Life,
Prophetic Monthly and others. He also had solidly scientific creationist articles published in
established journals. In 1935 he published an article defending a young earth in the prestigious
Annual Report of the Committee on Geologic Time. He also had several excellent articles
published in The Pan-American Geologist.
Whitney, Josiah Dwight (1819 – 1896)
Former California State Geologist. Whitney was State geologist from 1865 to 1882. He
wrote several books including ‘Earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountainbuilding’ in 1871.
Whittaker, Edmund Taylor (1873 – 1956)
Whittaker did original mathematics work with differential equations and complex variables. His
book ‘The Calculus of Observations’ was one of the first written expressions of numerical
analysis. His outstanding lectures at the University of Edinburgh motivated mathematics careers
for an entire generation of students.
Wigland, Albert Julius Wilhelm (1821 – 1886)
German professor, writer and botanist. As a plant physiologist, Wigland was a pioneer in
microscopic staining techniques. He actively opposed Darwin’s evolutionary ideas. He used
scientific data from his microscope promoting creation.
Wilder-Smith, Arthur Ernest (1915 – 1995)
Wilder-Smith was Professor of Pharmacology in Boggern, Switzerland. He studied the natural
sciences at Oxford in England. Wilder-Smith received his first doctorate in physical organic
chemistry at Reading University, England, in 1941. During World War Two, he joined the
research department at ICI in England. After the war, he became Countess of Lisburne memorial
Fellow at the University of London. He was subsequently appointed Director of Research for a
Swiss pharmaceutical company. Wilder-Smith was later elected to teach chemotherapy and
pharmacology at the medical school of the University of Geneva for which position he received
his habilitation (the senior examination required for professorial appointments to European
continental universities. At Geneva he earned his second doctorate followed by a third doctorate
from ETH (a senior university in Switzerland) in Zuerich. From 1957 to 1958 Wilder-Smith was
Visiting Assistant Professor at the Medical Centre of the University of Illinois. From 1959 to 1961
he was Visiting Full Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Bergen Medical School in
Norway. After two years at the University of Geneva, Wilder-Smith was appointed Full Professor
of Pharmacology at the University Medical Centre. Here he received three Golden Apple Awards
for best course of lectures, together with four senior lecturer awards for the best series of senior
year lectures. Wilder-Smith was the author or co-author of over seventy scientific publications and
more than thirty books.
Wilkins, John (1614 – 1672)
Received a Bachelor of Arts Degree in 1631 and a Master of Arts Degree in 1634 both from
Oxford, England. Wilkins was Warden of Wadham College from 1648 to 1659. He received a
Doctorate Degree (D.D.) from Cambridge in 1659. Wilkins was Master of Trinity College,
Cambridge from 1959 to 1960. He wrote on the exposition of the theoretical basis of mechanical
devices. Wilkins made an improved carriage, developed a new plow, a transparent beehive so
honey could be removed without disturbing the bees, and devised a machine for gardens that
would create an artificial mist. He showed the Royal Society an instrument to assist hearing.
Wilkins was a member of the Royal Society and a member of the council from 1660 to 1672. He
served as first secretary from 1662 to 1668 and was Vice-President in 1663.
Willughby, Francis (1635 – 1672)
Willughby was a zoologist and a charter member of the Royal Society of London. He was greatly
influenced by the creationist Professor John Ray at Trinity College in Cambridge. Willughby
catalogued many plants and animal specimens, but he thought that his writings were unworthy of
publication. His friend John Ray counseled him that published natural history writings were
needed. Several books followed, some of them after his death. His systematic studies of birds &
fish paved the way for modern classification systems.
Woodward, John (1665 – 1728)
Was Professor of Medicine at Cambridge. Woodward was the outstanding geologist of his day.
His large collection of fossils forms the nucleus of the present Woodwardian Museum at the
University of Cambridge; and the Woodwardian Professorship, established in his honor, is one of
the great prizes sought by modern British scientists. Woodward established the scientific
discipline of Paleontology. He wrote “An Essay Toward a Natural Theory of the Earth” in 1695.
Wright, Thomas (1711 – 1786)
Wright studied astronomy in eighteenth century England. Immanuel Kant credits Wright for
originating the disk-shaped model for the Milky Way Galaxy. He understood that the universe was
made up of numerous galaxies.
Young, George (1777 – 1848)
Young entered the University of Edinburgh in 1792. He distinguished himself especially in
mathematics and natural science. Young completed his degree with high honors and then began
a five year course in theology. He received a Master of Arts Degree in 1819 from the University of
Edinburgh. Young received an Honorary Doctor of Divinity Degree from Miami College in Oxford,
Ohio in 1838. He was well acquainted with several foreign languages including Hebrew, Greek,
Latin, French, Italian, Arabic, Chaldean, Syriac and the Anglo-Saxon language. His extensive
knowledge of antiquities & numismatics enabled him to decipher ancient manuscripts, coins and
inscriptions with great skill. In 1823 he became a founding member and first secretary of the
Whitby Literary and Philosophical Society until 1848. Young was also a corresponding member of
the Wernerian Natural History Society and the Northern Institution and an Honorary member of
the Yorkshire (also serving as Advisor. He procured fossil and mineral collections for the society),
Newcastel, Leeds & Hull literary & philosophical societies. He edited ‘The Whitby Panorama’ and
‘The Monthly Chronicle’ for two years. Young published six articles on geology in the respected
scientific journals of his day. He published twenty-one books including “A Geological Survey of
the Yorkshire Coast” in 1822 and “Scriptural Geology” in 1838.
Zwemer, Samuel M. (1867 – 1952)
Zwemer was Princeton Theological Seminary Professor Emeritus of the History of Religion and
Christian Missions, United States Presbyterian and Reformed Church and a Missionary to the